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War on the Home Front

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War on the Home Front 1. Look at Table 1. Describe the general trend in American industrial production, number of people in the armed forces, and government revenue during the war period. Why do you think they traveled in this path? 2. In 1916, the United States was not yet in war. In 1920, the war was over. Yet, if you look at Table 1, in 1920, government revenues, expenditures, and military spending were all much higher than before the war. If we are not fighting anymore, why have all these n
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  War on the HomeFront  1.Look at Table 1. Describe the general trend inAmerican industrial production, number of people in the armed forces, and governmentrevenue during the war period. Why do youthink they traveled in this path?2.In 1916, the United States was not yet in war.In 1920, the war was over. Yet, if you look at Table 1, in 1920, governmentrevenues, expenditures, and military spending were all much higher than before thewar. If we are not fighting anymore, why have all these numbers not returned totheir pre-war level?3.What are the two main ways that the war was financed? In particular, how did thevery wealthy finance the war?4.What is a liberty bond? Were they successful?5.During the war, what agencies did the government create? How do you think theyaffected the day-to-day lives of Americans?  Overall, what do you think was the effectiveness of the propaganda machine? ImagesThemesMessageStereotypes Analyzing WWIPropaganda Posters  Safety vs.Security? As you have read, the United Statescurbed the civil liberties of itscitizens during World War I. This isnothing new during wartime. AbrahamLincoln through suspected traitors injail with no trial or even attorneyduring the Civil War. The questionto you is: Is this right?As you know, the United States iscurrently engaged in two militaryoperations, one in Iraq and one inAfghanistan. In 2001, andreauthorized in 2006, the UnitedStates congress passed the USAPATRIOT Act, which did, among manythings: ã Roving wiretaps: The CIA/FBI may now jump from phone to phone,computer to computer, monitoring what the user is doing without demonstrating to a judge that it is part of an investigation ã Immunity: Telephone providers (like your cell phone) areauthorized to turn in all your calls/messages at the request ofthe government, and cannot be sued by you ã Education records: Upon request form the Attorney General,educational records “relevant” to an investigation must besuppliedMany critics contend that all of these provisions undermine our civilliberties; conversely, supporters argue that without the PATRIOT Act,our way of life would be destroyed.Using your knowledge of issues related to World War I and present daycivil liberties concerns, defend or refute the following statement ina well organized paragraph: “They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty norsafety.” --Attributed to Benjamin Franklin, ~1775 Do you think it's more important to be safe, and give up somefreedoms? Or is safety not worth your privacy? Please use at leastone example from both WWI and from the current era. This paragraphis worth 12 points, and is due _______________________.  U.S. Mobilization into War  Mobilizing the Economy The first and most important mobilization decision was the size of the army. When the United Statesentered the war, the army stood at 200,000, hardly enough to have a decisive impact in Europe. However,on May 18, 1917 a draft was imposed and the numbers were increased rapidly. Initially, the expectationwas that the United States would mobilize an army of one million. The number, however, would go muchhigher. Overall some 4,791,172 Americans would serve in World War I. Some 2,084,000 would reachFrance, and 1,390,000 would see active combat.Once the size of the Army had been determined, the demands on the economy became obvious, althoughthe means to satisfy them did not: food and clothing, guns and ammunition, places to train, and the meansof transport. The Navy also had to be expanded to protect American shipping and the troop transports.Contracts immediately began flowing from the Army and Navy to the private sector. The result, of course,was a rapid increase in federal spending from $477 million in 1916 to a peak of $8,450 million in 1918.(See Table 1 below for this and other data on the war effort.) Table 1Selected Economic Variables, 1916-1920 191619171918191919201. Industrial production (1916 =100)1001321391371082. Revenues of the federal government (millions of dollars)$9302,3734,3885,8896,1103. Expenditures of the federal government (millions of dollars)$1,3337,31615,58512,4255,7104. Army and Navy spending (millions of dollars)$4773,3838,5806,6852,0635. Military personnel (millions).174.8352.9681.266.353 Financing the War  Where did the money come from to buy all these munitions? Then as now there were, the experts agreed,three basic ways to raise the money: (1) raising taxes, (2) borrowing from the public, and (3) printingmoney. In the Civil War the government had had simply printed the famous greenbacks. [ However, now that the United States was firmly on the gold standard, this was impossible to do. Therefore, leadersneeded another plan- Mr. Long  ].The real choice appeared to be between raising taxes and borrowing from the public. Most economists of the World War I era believed that raising taxes was best [rather than borrowing]. During the war Oliver Morton Sprague, one of the leading economists of the day, offered another reason for avoiding borrowing.It was unfair, Sprague argued, to draft men into the armed forces and then expect them to come home andpay higher taxes to fund the interest and principal on war bonds. Most men of affairs, however, thought thatsome balance would have to be struck between taxes and borrowing. Treasury Secretary William GibbsMcAdoo thought that financing about 50 percent from taxes and 50 percent from bonds would be aboutright. Financing more from taxes, especially progressive taxes, would frighten the wealthier classes andundermine their support for the war.In October 1917 Congress responded to the call for higher taxes with the War Revenue Act. This actincreased the personal and corporate income tax rates...The tax rate for an income of $10,000 with four exemptions (about $140,000 in 2003 dollars) went from 1.2 percent in 1916 to 7.8 percent. For incomes of 
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