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Project. What is a project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. What is a Project?. Temporary Goal-directed Collaborative Constrained Endeavor. What is Project Management?.
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  • What is a project
  • A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result
  • What is a Project?
  • Temporary
  • Goal-directed
  • Collaborative
  • Constrained
  • Endeavor
  • What is Project Management?
  • Project management is the applicationof knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceedstakeholder needs and expectations from a project.
  • PM Development Objective
  • On Schedule
  • Within Budget
  • According to specification
  • Project Management Process
  • Initiating Processes
  • Planning Processes
  • Executing Processes
  • Controlling Processes
  • Closing Processes
  • Project Management Problems
  • Requirements
  • Incomplete
  • Unclear
  • Inadequate
  • External dependencies
  • Project Management Problems
  • Poor estimates
  • Inadequate tracking or supervision
  • Uncontrolled changes
  • Inadequate testing procedures
  • Inadequate documentation
  • Politics
  • Role of the Project Manager
  • Leadership and Guidance
  • Planning
  • Customer Relations
  • Technical Leadership
  • Senior Management Liaison
  • Handling Large Projects
  • Project Decomposition
  • Stepwise Refinement
  • Functional Decomposition
  • Design Decomposition
  • Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)
  • Why to Project Decomposition
  • Project Decomposition
  • F(xyz)q = F(x)q + (y)q + (z)q
  • A complex project can be divided into simpler components. Each component is easier to handle.
  • System development projects are decomposed into smaller components in order to provide better estimates of the amount of the amount of work involved and to monitor and manage the various activities of the development team.
  • Stepwise Refinement
  • Stepwise Refinement
  • Stepwise refinement are iterative methods because each iteration decomposes the system further.
  • SystemsComponent 1Component 2Component Decomposition
  • Functional Decomposition
  • Functional decomposition of a software project is a division of the system into its operational components as they are seen by the user.
  • The objective is to define all the characteristics of the system from the user’s perspective.
  • Functional DecompositionDesign Decomposition
  • Design Decomposition
  • Is a division of the system into lower level components that coincide with the actual software components of the systems.
  • In a full design decomposition of a software system, the lowest components correspond to programming modules (e.g. procedures, subroutines, or program functions)
  • Requirement Functional decomposition Design Decomposition.
  • Design DecompositionThe best design would strive to produce independent software components or modules.Good design will strive for low coupling, high cohesion and information hiding.Work Breakdown structure
  • WBS
  • This is the division of the IT project into basic work components
  • The sum total of these work components covers all the tasks that need to be performed in order to complete the project successfully.
  • Materials
  • Functions
  • People
  • WBS
  • Project Decomposition
  • Development tasks
  • Managerial tasks
  • Support tasks
  • Administrative tasks
  • WBSWBSManaging Large ProjectsProject Reporting Techniques
  • Period written status report
  • Verbal reports
  • Status meetings
  • Product demonstrations (demo)
  • Status Reports
  • Status Reports Format
  • Red flags
  • Problems that require the immediate attention of the PM.
  • Activities during the report period (2 weeks).
  • This should be linked to WBS
  • Planned activities for the next report period
  • Major activity planned for the next report period
  • Problems and general issues
  • Issues not yet resolved from the last period
  • Holidays, Vacation,
  • New project members, etc.
  • Date, report period, Name of report, Who is submitting the report.
  • Some Basic Problems(management errors)
  • Poor estimates
  • Budget, Schedule, development resources, technical estimates
  • Inadequate tracking and supervision
  • Uncontrolled changes
  • Poor testing procedures
  • Poor development documentation
  • Risk
  • Foresight is an excellent PM quality
  • Ability to anticipate problem
  • What is Risk?
  • An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives.
  • PMI (project management institute)
  • Risk Analysis
  • Risk analysis includes estimating its probability, evaluating its impact and preparing for solution in advance.
  • Risk analysis is not free
  • Project size/complexity vs. risk
  • Risk and system complexityRisk Technical Cost ScheduleSystem ComplexitySuccessful Risk Management
  • SEI summaries successful risk management as follows
  • A successful risk management practice is one in which risks are continuously identified and analyzed .
  • Risks are mitigated, tracked, and controlled to effectively use program resources.
  • Problems are prevented before they occur and personnel consciously focus on what could affect product quality and schedules
  • Common risk factors
  • Risk factors
  • Lack of top management commitment to the project
  • Failure to gain user commitment
  • Misunderstanding the requirement
  • Lack of adequate user involvement
  • Failure to manage end user expectation
  • Changing scope and objectives
  • Lack of required knowledge/skill in the project personnel
  • New technology
  • Insufficient / inappropriate staffing
  • Conflict between user departments
  • Anticipating Problems
  • Step One
  • Do a review of all project technical and administrative plans
  • Project development plan
  • Requirement specifications
  • Design specification
  • Personnel
  • External sources
  • Etc
  • Step two
  • Compile a list of all anticipated problems and describe the potential effect of each problem on the project.
  • Late delivery of hardwareCommunication and Networks problemStaff…….If vendor don’t deliver the system by date the integration will be delayed and it will have effect on cost and schedule.Too slow to support the new system upgrade must be completed before testingProblem with so and so with respect to bla bla. Especially the resources from other the “side”Problem and DescriptionRisk Analysis Stage
  • Evaluation of the anticipated risk
  • Estimate the probability that the risk will occur
  • Estimate the impact of the problem on the project
  • Attribute a measure of severity to the problem
  • Contingency plan
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