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Historical Timeline December 2004 – August 28, 2005 November 23, – National– Hurricane 1988 Response Plan Stafford Act Katrina July 2006 – New Orleans Assisted Evacuation Plan June 2007 – Stafford Act Revised January 2008 June 2009 – July 2009 – – National Virginia Louisiana Response Hurricane Emergency Framework Response Operations Plan updated Plan updated The historic evolution of transportation of the carless population during hurricane evacuations really starts with Hurricane Katrina. B
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  Historical TimelineThe historic evolution of transportation of the carless population during hurricaneevacuations really starts with Hurricane Katrina. Before that disaster, there were statutes,such as the srcinal Stafford Act, providing transportation for these high risk and needy populations, but the need was highlighted in the wake of Katrina. There was really no plan for evacuation of those without cars. As a professor at the University of NewOrleans reported, “A few minutes later, the [radio] station announced that all residentswithout the ability to leave must go to the Superdome for shelter, this was their plan for the carless,” (Renne, 2005). As it can be seen, this Category 4 hurricane was what really put transportation needs on the agenda for many states and localities, includingLouisiana, Virginia, New Orleans, and Virginia Beach. November 23,1988 –Stafford ActDecember 2004 –NationalResponse PlanAugust 28, 2005– HurricaneKatrina July 2006 –New OrleansAssistedEvacuationPlan June 2007 –Stafford ActRevised January 2008– NationalResponseFramework June 2009 –VirginiaHurricaneResponsePlan updated July 2009 –LouisianaEmergencyOperationsPlan updated  The Stafford Act, as amended in 2007, identifies the need to providetransportation for those that require it in the event of an evacuation. It says that states andlocalities need to identify transportation modes during disasters and coordinate plans toevacuate all people (FEMA, 2007). So while the federal government saw the need for increased cooperation, it has passed the duty to make these plans to states and localities.Both Louisiana and Virginia also changed their plans and laws in response toKatrina. Virginia, in its Hurricane Response Plan, says that plans are under developmentwith localities to provide for transportation of the carless population (VDEM, 2009, p.71). This means that the problem is on the agenda and a solution is being worked on, butit is still evolving. Louisiana also has addressed this need in its Emergency OperationsPlan, saying that transportation for at risk populations needs to be mobilized (GOHSEP,2009, p. ESF 1-1).Cities also saw the need for plans after Hurricane Katrina. Virginia Beach doesnot have a clear plan in place to address the needs of the carless populations. NewOrleans, on the other hand, has a plan that is a little more developed. It has a CityAssisted Evacuation Plan that aims to help people who cannot self-evacuate get out in theevent of a disaster (City of New Orleans, 2006). It was last updated in 2006, so it waslikely updated as a result of Katrina.There have also been reports addressing the needs of the carless population thatcame about after Hurricane Katrina. These include the  National Study on Carless and Special Needs Evacuation Planning: A Literature Review . Reports, like this one, werewritten as a direct result of Katrina. That disaster showed how vulnerable the carless population still is and why lawmakers need to take steps to help. The timeline for this   problem really starts with Katrina, but is still being tweaked and improved. New Orleans Office of Emergency Preparedness. (2006). City Assisted Evacuation Plan.  New Orleans, LA: The City of New OrleansFederal Emergency Management Agency. (2007).  Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. (FEMA 592). Washington, D.C.Louisiana Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness.(2009). State of Louisiana Emergency Operations Plan . Baton Rouge, LA:Louisiana Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness.Renne, John. (2005, September 6). Car-less in the eye of Katrina.  Planetizen. Retrievedfrom http://www.planetizen.com/node/17255Virginia Department of Emergency Management. (2009).  Emergency Operations Plan: Hurricane Response Plan (Volume V, Incident Annex 3). Richmond, VA:Virginia Department of Emergency Management.
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