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  Shaman Hatley MAPPING THE ESOTERICBODY IN THE ISLAMICYOGA OF BENGAL ç 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.0018-2710/2007/4604-0003$10.00 introduction Islam’s rapid rise within indigenous communities in the eastern andnorthern regions of premodern Bengal engendered extraordinary culturaland religious change from around the early Mughal period. 1 Among thesignificant markers available to us of this change is a large and little-studied corpus of Islamic literature in Bengali. Spanning from sacredbiography to Sufi romances and practice manuals, this literature testifies tothe articulation of a regional Islam among newly Islamized communities.As many as twenty of the extant texts—only about half of which havebeen published, and none of which appear likely to predate the sixteenthcentury—concern matters of Sufi doctrine and practice. 2 One of the mostconsistent concerns of this genre is the explication of Islamized forms of Tantric yoga, the practices of which appear integral to Sufism as it was 1 Concerning the expansion of Islam among the Bengali peasant classes, see Richard M.Eaton, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760 (Berkeley: University of Cali-fornia Press, 1993). He concludes that “Bengal’s Muslim society from the thirteenth centurythrough the sixteenth was overwhelmingly urban” (97). 2 Ahmad Sharif, whose critical editions of Bengali Islamic texts make possible studies suchas the present one, provides a list of the published and unpublished Bengali texts he consid-ers “Sufi treatises” ( s u  ph i¶a stra s); see Ahmad Sharif,  B a “ al a r S u  ph i  S a hitya (Dhaka: BanglaAcademy, 1969), 5–6. His criteria are unclear, however, for the list includes the N a tha nar-rative Gorakha Vijaya .   Mapping the Esoteric Body 352developed in Bengal. Although the sources for this yoga are clearly in-digenous, primarily the N a tha cult and at a later stage Sahajiy a Vai sn avism,Muslim authors encode their disciplines within Islamic doctrinal categoriesand articulate them as integral elements of a Sufi praxis regimen.Generalizations about the supposedly syncretic nature of Bengali re-ligious culture, and the quest to understand how and why Islamizationtook place, have not infrequently dominated the study of Islam in pre-modern Bengal. Scholarship has tended to elide its diversity, and particularIslamicate religious forms, such as Sufi yoga, have hence received rela-tively little detailed attention. 3 With this gap in mind, the present essayfocuses upon a process that was central to the articulation of Islamic yoga:the translation into Islamic categories of the yogic or esoteric body, thatwhich Sanskrit sources commonly refer to as the s u k  s ma (subtle) body,or  purya st  aka . In the second part of the essay, I explore issues that arisein framing inquiry into this material.Tantric practices became prevalent across an extraordinary spectrum of sectarian boundaries in South Asia and beyond, flourishing with ‡ aivism,Buddhism, and Vai sn avism and finding a place in both Jainism and theBrahmanical sm a rta traditions as well. 4 If one leaves aside monolithicOrientalist characterizations, it would seem evident that in South Asia,Islam constituted no less likely a ground for the assimilation of Tantricyoga. In important ways, a suitable foundation was already in place: Sufitraditions, after all, embraced elaborate spiritual disciplines that, like thoseof Tantric yoga, required esoteric initiation and presupposed a mysticalphysiology as the locus for meditations involving syllabic formulas,visualization, and controlled respiration. Islamic adaptations of indig-enous yogic disciplines are indeed by no means unique to Bengal: Sufi 3 Exceptions include David Cashin’s important study, The Ocean of Love: Middle BengaliSufi Literature and the Fakirs of Bengal (Stockholm: Association of Oriental Studies, Stock-holm University, 1995); and France Bhattacharya’s recent annotated translation of a Sufiyoga text, “Un texte du Bengale médiéval: Le yoga du kalandar ( Yoga-Kalandar  ); Yoga etsoufisme, le confluent des deux fleuves,”  Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient  90–91 (2003–4): 69–99. Tony Stewart’s work on the cult of   p i  r  s is particularly noteworthy:“Alternate Structures of Authority: Satya P i r on the Frontiers of Bengal,” in  Beyond Hindu and  Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India , ed. Peter Gottschalk (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2000), 21–54. Stewart has published a volume of translations fromthe literature on  p i  r  s as well: Fabulous Females and Peerless P i  rs: Tales of Mad Adventurein Old Bengal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). 4 On the role of Tantric practices in the sm a rta tradition, see, e.g., Gudrun Bühnemann,“Ma nd alas and Yantras in Sm a rta Ritual,” in  Ma nd  alas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions ,ed. Gudrun Bühnemann (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 57–118. Concerning the relationship betweenHindu orthodoxy and Tantric ‡ aivism, see Alexis Sanderson, “Purity and Power amongthe Brahmans of Kashmir,” in The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy and  History , ed. Steven Collins, Michael Carrithers, and Steven Lukes (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1985), 190–216. On Tantra in Jainism, see especially John Cort, “Tantra inJainism: The Cult of Gha nt a kar n Mah a v i r,”  Bulletin d’Études Indiennes 15 (1997): 115–33.   History of Religions 353 silsilah s and Ism a º i l i s in South Asia attest multiple examples of experi-mentation, 5 and as Carl Ernst shows, Arabic and Persian translations of thelost Sanskrit  Am  r  taku nd  a circulated in Sufi circles as far afield as Istanbul. 6 In the presence of the enormous variety of  dhikr  techniques available inlate medieval Islam, it was apparently not uncommon for Sufis to “obtainmultiple initiations into the practices of several Sufi orders, though theprimary orientation would remain in a single order.” 7 The variable and ex-tendable nature of the elements of Sufi meditational praxis, the potentialfor the individual Shaykh to innovate, and the probable Islamization of yogi communities in Bengal, discussed subsequently, suggest historicalcircumstances in which the development of Islamic forms of Tantric yogashould be of little surprise. islamizing the yogic body Tantric conceptions of the body consistently place the human organisminto a relation of structural homology to the macrocosm. This mappingof biocosmological equivalence extends from celestial realms and hellworlds—and the rivers, mountains, and pilgrimage centers of sacredgeography—to the social world, rendering mastery of the external uni-verse possible through yogic technique alone. Similar conceptions are notalien to classical Sufi mysticism; in the thought of Ibn ºArab i , for example,all that exists in the human being has an analogue in the macrocosm, “thegreat human being” ( al-ins a n al-kab i  r  ). 8 Perhaps facilitated by Islamicprecedents, Bengal Sufism adapted to itself the basic template of theyogic body as formulated by the N a tha cult and reconfigured it within theparameters of Indo-Islamic thought. In the Bengali Sir N  a m a , we are toldthat All a h’s entire creation of eighteen cosmological spheres ( º  a lam ) ispresent within the body, within which we may obtain, according to T  a lib 5 In this essay, as far as possible, Islamic terms are given in their Arabic, singular forms,with the English “s” added to form the plural, and the Bengali rendering provided in paren-theses, if it differs considerably. 6 Carl Ernst, “The Islamization of Yoga in the Amrtakunda Translations,”  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society , ser. 3, 13, no. 2 (2003): 199–226. More recently, Ernst has provided anoverview of the Sufi engagement with yoga and yogis as reflected in Persian, Arabic, andUrdu sources, in “Situating Sufism and Yoga,”  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society , ser. 3,15, no. 1 (2005): 15–43. He notes that “a more extensive engagement with yogic traditiontook place among Indian Sufis through regional Indic languages, especially on the frontiersof Bengal and the Punjab,” and he remarks, “much remains to be done in the evaluation of the significance of yogic themes in these literatures” (32–33). On the Ism a º i l i practice of yoga, see Dominique-Sila Khan, “Conversation between Guru Hasan Kab i rudd i n and Jog i K a niph a : Tantra Revisited by the Ismaºili Preachers,” in Tantra in Practice , ed. DavidGordon White (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 285–95. 7 Carl Ernst, The Shambhala Guide to Sufism: An Essential Introduction to the Philosophyand Practice of the Mystical Tradition of Islam (Boston: Shambhala, 1997), 121. 8 See William C. Chittick, The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn Al-ºArab i  ’s Cos-mology (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998), 288.   Mapping the Esoteric Body 354  N  a m a , the fruits of visiting Mecca and Medina. 9 It is within the body thatone must wage holy war against Iblis and his minions, a Sufi conceptionof   jih a d  enriched through the addition of yogic categories such as the s a d  ripu , “six enemies” of lust, and so forth. 10 The body itself is likenedto a province ( wil a  yah , Bengali bil a t  ) or city under the rule of the soul,as king, with the various administrators of Indo-Islamic polity under his jurisdiction: the ºaql (intelligence, Bengali a kal ) is the vaz i  r  or primeminister ( uj i  r  ); correct discrimination is the q a d  i  or judge ( k  a  j i  ); and thebody’s hair the masses of subjects ( ruº  a  y a , Bengali r  a  yat  ), all the trans-actions of whom are recorded in the daftar  (Bengali daptar  ), or accountbook, of the heart. Filling the coffers of the royal treasury is the body’sstock of seminal fluid, the expenditure of which spells the kingdom’sruin. 11 The sun and moon, or rather four moons, circulate through thehuman organism, in which are also present the planets, the twelve signsof the solar zodiac, and seven days of the week. 12 Bengal’s plentiful riversand canals for their part find biological correspondence in the body’s n a d  i  s,conceived of as carriers of blood, semen, and the vital airs; also presentin the body are the seven oceans of Indian cosmography in the form of thebodily fluids. 13 Muslim authors in Bengal faced a range of options in negotiating theIslamization of Tantric yoga and adopted multiple and sometimes in-consistent approaches. Some early Bengali Sufi texts retain a substratumof N a tha practice little affected by Islamization and articulated in largelyindigenous vocabulary, especially when the subject matter has minimaltheological implications. Often, Islamic categories are translated intoequivalent Bengali or Sanskrit terminology; use of Persian or Arabictechnical vocabulary for yogic concepts is common as well, reflecting thedynamic processes by which equivalence was sought. Finally, buildingupon equivalences and the transformational possibilities of translation,we find articulation of entirely exogenous Islamic conceptions and prac-tices. 14 Individual authors approach this range of possibilities differently.Some who were evidently learned in the Islamic sciences, such as M i r 9 Sir N  a m a , in Sharif,  B a “ al a r S u  ph i  S a hitya , 271; see also T a lib N a m a , in ibid., 87. 10 Ibid., 295. 11  Nur J  a m a l/Surat N  a m a , 201, and Sir N  a m a , 294–95, both in Sharif,  B a “ al a r S u  ph i  S a hitya . The matter of these two texts overlaps considerably here. 12 Sir N  a m a , in Sharif,  B a “ al a r S u  ph i  S a hitya , 272. 13  Nur J  a m a l/Surat N  a m a enumerates the n a d  i  s and describes them as carriers of blood( ¶  o n ita ), much as the rivers of the earth carry water. See Sharif,  B a “ al a r S u  ph i  S a hitya ,199–201. 14 On equivalence and translation in Bengali Islamic literature, discussed subsequently, seeTony Stewart, “In Search of Equivalence: Conceiving the Muslim-Hindu Encounter throughTranslation Theory,” in  India’s Islamic Traditions, 711–1750 , ed. Richard M. Eaton (NewDelhi: Oxford University Press, 2003), 363–92.
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