Enhanced Solution for LNG by G.E

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GE Oil & Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Enhanced solutions for LNG plants LNG Natural gas is in great demand globally as a clean fuel and as a feedstock for petrochemicals, agricultural chemicals and plastics. Traditionally, transport has been limited to pipelines, whose economic and physical limitations have typically restricted distribution to regional/interstate supply, relatively close to the gas source, where terrain and geopolitical considerations are not prohibitive. However, when converted
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  GEOil & Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Enhanced solutions for LNG plants  2 LNG Natural gas is in great demand globally as a clean fuel andas a feedstock for petrochemicals, agricultural chemicalsand plastics. Traditionally, transport has been limited topipelines, whose economic and physical limitations havetypically restricted distribution to regional/interstate supply,relatively close to the gas source, where terrain andgeopoliticalconsiderationsare not prohibitive.However,when converted to LiquefiedNatural Gas (LNG), the fuelcan be conveniently transported by ship to distant marketsworldwide – well beyond the reach of pipeline systems,thereby greatly increasing the availability of thishighlydesirable energy resource with an unparalleled flexibilityof supply. How it works When chilled to -162º C (-260º F) at 1 atm, natural gas isa clear liquid taking up 600 times less space than thecorresponding gas and enabling practical transportationby specially designed ships. Various combinations of refrigeration cycles are used in licensed LNG productionprocesses, but most employ gas turbine-driven compressorsto achieve the necessary cryogenic temperatures. Forcommercial, safety and environmentalreasons, thesecompression units must be very robust, efficient, andhighly reliable.GE has been a leader in the development of the complex,large scale turbocompressionmachinery required for thisvery challenging application.  Evolution of LNG Technological innovation and economies of scale havebeen the two key contributors to the industry’s progress.As more economical LNG plant solutions have beendeveloped, it has become feasible to commercializeremotenatural gas fields and more marginal stranded gasresources. This delivers to markets natural gas associatedwith the production of oil that previously might have GE . . . a recognizedtechnology leaderin the LNG industry 3 beenflaredand also benefits the environment bydisplacing other more environmentally intrusive fuelswith clean burningnatural gas.GE’s Oil & Gas business has a long history of leadershipin the evolution of LNG technology, and our equipmentis found in most LNG plants around the world.  SteamTurbine EraLarge GasTurbine/EMEraGas TurbineEra 1989199519992002200420062007Start-up Year 2.0 —3.0 —4.0 —5.0 —6.0 —7.0 —8.0 —      M     T     P     Y FR5 (APCI) FR6/FR7 (APCI) FR5NewProcess (COP) FR7/FR7 (APCI) VSDS EM driver (LINDE) FR9Edriver (APCI) FR7/FR7 MR splitin twotrains (APCI) 4 GE Oil & Gas technological milestones in LNG production Our latest milestone is the coupling of the Frame-9 gasturbine with a new, higher capacity compressor to onceagain extend plant production capacity. Three of theseturbocompressor giants will form the cryogenic refrigerationunit of an 8 MTPY plant – the largest in the world – scheduledfor operation in 2007. This supertrain is currently beingtested at our facility in Massa, Italy.And our research and development continues – always insearch of the next LNG breakthrough. GE technology . . . drivingplant capacity & economiesof scale Driving LNG growth The focus of the industry has been on efficiency and costreduction with a constant drive to improve the economicbalance with respect to alternate means of providinghydrocarbon products to markets such as pipelines and oil.Until the mid 1980s, the centrifugal compressors used in theliquefaction process were mainly driven by steam turbineswhich permitted liquefaction trains of up to about 2 MTPY.Gas turbine technology, because of the higher powerdensity that it affords, has enabled significant unit traincapacity increases and has become the dominant driverfor LNG plant refrigeration. The gas turbine era began inthe late 1980s when we introduced the first Frame-5driven compressor train for a 2.3 MTPY capacity plant. OurFrame-6 and Frame-7 gas turbine drivers subsequentlybettered that with 4 MTPY capability, while today’s largestoperating LNG plant has a production capacity of 5 MTPYand is driven by our Frame-7 machines. Frame-9 E MechanicalDrive gas turbineswill drive the world’slargest LNG plantallowing up to 8 MTPYproduction capacity.
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