Design & Build an Access Database - PDF

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This PDF version of my booklet aims to help you learn how to design and build applications using Microsoft Access. This document is written to be read and understood as you are working on your own design and build experiments. This Access database design and implementation document is a higher-level self-instruction booklet; it is assumed that you are already a fairly competent Access user.
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    Page 1 of 144 Designing and Building AccessDatabase Systems Edition 7, October 2009 Mark Gregory  ___________________________________________________________________________    Page 2 of 144 Designing and Building AccessDatabase Systems Mark Gregory École Supérieure de Commerce de RennesESC Rennes School of Business, France Previously, Edition 0 School of Computing andEngineering, University ofHuddersfield  March 2000Edition 7 ESC Rennes School of Business,France October 2009 Work on this document started when Mark Gregory was working at the University of Huddersfield, UK in 1999/2000. Some of thematerial included was srcinally written by my then colleague Dr.Steve Wade, who is still at Huddersfield. Other portions draw onwork by Dr. Ken Lunn, who has moved on to the IT Directorate of the UK National Health Service.The Sixth Edition was a very substantial revision of the previous year’s edition, as is this Seventh Edition.    Page 3 of 144 1.   INTRODUCTION: WHO IS THIS DOCUMENT FOR?.....................................13   1.1.   Preface......................................................................................................................................................13   1.2.   Skills required..........................................................................................................................................13   1.3.   The aims of the remainder of this document.........................................................................................13   1.4.   The structure of this document and how to use it.................................................................................14   1.5.   About Learning Access ...........................................................................................................................15   1.5.1.   Starter: the naïve user: Level 1..........................................................................................................15   1.5.2.   The thinking user: Level 2.................................................................................................................15   1.5.3.   The competent (“power”) user: Level 3.............................................................................................15   1.5.4.    Advanced: the programmer or systems integrator: Level 4 ........................................................................15   1.5.5.   What is the relevance of MS Access skills?......................................................................................15   1.6.   Testing yourself........................................................................................................................................16   1.6.1.   What you should already know..........................................................................................................16   1.6.2.   What you should already be able to do or need now to learn............................................................16   1.6.3.    A checklist of more advanced skills ........................................................................................................17   1.6.4.   Further help on learning to learn.......................................................................................................17   1.7.   Conventions Used in this document.......................................................................................................17   1.8.   Limitations...............................................................................................................................................17   1.9.   Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................18   SECTION 1 - THE PRINCIPLES OF DATABASE....................................................19   2.   A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DATABASES..................................................19   2.1.   Databases (bases de données) and how they are designed...................................................................19   2.2.   Models used by systems analysts............................................................................................................19   2.3.   Simple model of data processing............................................................................................................19   2.4.   Why study Databases?............................................................................................................................20   2.4.1.   They are used in every significant BIS..............................................................................................20   2.4.2.   They are at the heart of......................................................................................................................20   2.5.   Background..............................................................................................................................................20   2.6.   How to store data ....................................................................................................................................20   2.7.   What is a database?.................................................................................................................................21   2.8.   Why keep data in different tables?........................................................................................................21   2.9.   Learning a minimum about database....................................................................................................23      Page 4 of 144 2.10.   Basic concepts......................................................................................................................................23   2.11.   Entity (type, class) ...............................................................................................................................24   2.12.   An example: Students by Programme ...............................................................................................25   2.13.   Attribute...............................................................................................................................................25   2.14.   Primary and Foreign Keys..................................................................................................................25   2.15.   Why have foreign keys?......................................................................................................................26   2.16.   Entity occurrences – student ..............................................................................................................26   2.17.   Entity occurrences – programme.......................................................................................................26   2.18.   Queries..................................................................................................................................................26   2.19.   Students and Modules.........................................................................................................................27   2.20.   Three Vital Rules.................................................................................................................................27   2.21.   Resolving Many-to-Many Relationships ...........................................................................................27   2.22.   Towards a more complete entity relationship attribute model........................................................30   2.23.   Example Query – definition................................................................................................................31   2.24.   Example Query – results.....................................................................................................................31   2.25.   What is a query? (French ‘une requête’) .........................................................................................32   2.26.   Data Dictionary ...................................................................................................................................32   2.27.   Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD)................................................................................................32   2.28.   Another example database: NorthWind / Les Comptoirs................................................................33   2.29.   Relationship: meaning and characteristics........................................................................................33   2.30.   Why it’s important to relate entities..................................................................................................34   2.31.   Degree of relationship (simplified).....................................................................................................34   2.32.   Simple database design .......................................................................................................................34   3.   A SIMPLE METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING MICROSOFT ACCESSDATABASES............................................................................................................35   3.0.   Introduction – background to the methodology ...................................................................................35   3.0.1.   Database, or something else?.............................................................................................................35   3.0.2.   What is a methodology?....................................................................................................................35   3.0.3.   Assumptions......................................................................................................................................36   3.0.4.   Introduction to modelling business information systems: why we have chosen certain techniques...36   3.0.5.   What we’re trying to achieve together...............................................................................................37   3.0.6.   Business Process Modelling: Documenting a Business Process........................................................37   3.0.7.   Why have we chosen the techniques we have?..................................................................................38  
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