Centering on Mentoring

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Centering on Mentoring. A Training Program For Mentors And Mentees. Mentorship. A mentor is an individual with expertise who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development of the mentee.
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Centering on MentoringA Training Program For Mentors And MenteesMentorship
  • A mentor is an individual with expertise
  • who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development of the mentee.
  • Two types of mentoring functions:
  • Career
  • Psychosocial
  • Mentoring Functions
  • Career Functions: Help the mentee learn
  • the ropes and prepare for career advancement.
  • Coaching
  • Challenging assignments
  • Exposure and visibility
  • Protection
  • Mentoring Functions
  • Psychosocial Functions: Help the mentee
  • develop a sense of competence and clarity of identity.
  • Role-Modeling
  • Acceptance and confirmation
  • Counseling
  • Friendship
  • Stages of Mentoring
  • Initiation Stage
  • Cultivation Stage
  • Separation Stage
  • Redefinition Stage
  • Not all stages are beneficial to the mentor or to the mentee.
  • Advantages of Mentoring
  • Advantages for the mentee:
  • Career advancement
  • Salary
  • Organizational/professional identification
  • Advantages for the mentor:
  • Career enhancement
  • “Passing the torch to a new generation”
  • Learning from mentee – new technologies, new developments, important features of next generation
  • Disadvantages of Mentoring
  • Disadvantages for the mentee:
  • Overdependence on the mentor
  • Micro-management from the mentor
  • Negative halo from mentor who fails
  • Disadvantages for the mentor:
  • Mentee dependence on mentor
  • Time, energy commitment to mentee
  • Negative halo from mentee who fails
  • Problems With Cross-Gender Mentoring
  • Most common form of business mentoring:
  • male mentor and male mentee.
  • Other forms:
  • Male mentor and female mentee (most common)
  • Female mentor and male mentee
  • Female mentor and female mentee (rare)
  • Advice for Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Mentoring
  • Keep relationship professional
  • Be sensitive to other people’s reactions and
  • potential rumors
  • Avoid perception of personal relationship
  • Meet in public venues
  • Transparency of relationship
  • Mentoring
  • Dysfunctional mentoring: When the
  • relationship does not work for one or more parties.
  • Linda Tripp/Monica Lewinsky
  • Problems develop when:
  • Interests of the parties change
  • Differences in judgment between parties
  • Intrusion/over-involvement in another’s personal problems
  • Triangulation problem with others (mentor/mentee/supervisor)
  • Destructive tone of relationship (e.g., envy/jealousy; dependency/suffocation; support/exploitation)
  • Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring RelationshipsScandura, T. A. (1998)Formal Mentoring Programs
  • Program length is specified (12 months)
  • Purpose of program is to help early career
  • psychologists establish and develop their careers
  • Program participation is voluntary
  • Matching of mentors and mentees uses input
  • from participants
  • Interest areas in psychology
  • Demographics
  • Experiences
  • Formal Mentoring Programs
  • Advocate developmental networks
  • Monitoring program: Relationships should end as
  • soon as they become dysfunctional
  • Evaluation of program
  • Little research on formal mentoring programs.
  • Available research supports informal mentoring as a stronger relationship with better outcomes. No current research examining quality of formal mentoring programs and their outcomes. (Wanberg, Welsh, & Hezlett, 2003)Developer is org. superior to the menteeDeveloper is org. peer to the menteeDeveloper is org. subordinae to the menteeDemo-graphic matchProfess-ional/Interest area matchGeograph-ical location matchCareer-related: Coaching mentee with strategies for meeting job expectations ++---0+00Career-related: Challenging mentee with stretch assignments/goals-0+Career-related: Enhancing the mentee’s exposure and visibility +++-+++Career-related: Protection of mentee from potentially negative contacts with other org. members. +++++Career-related: Sponsorship of mentee’s career development+--000Psychosocial: Role Modeling++++-+++++Psychosocial: Counseling with work relationships+++Psychosocial: Counseling on developing work/career-related competencies+0+-000Psychosocial: Counseling with work-family balance0+0+Psychosocial: General acceptance and confirmation ++++++Matrix of Types of Developers and Development Functions in Organizational Socialization(Chao, in press)“+”= likely function for this type of developer, “0” = possible function for this type of developer, “-” = unlikely function for this type of developerAdvice to Potential Mentees
  • Get mentors! Internal mentors help with current
  • organizational issues. External mentors help with larger career issues and future organizational moves.
  • One mentor is unlikely to fulfill all developmental
  • needs
  • Be proactive
  • Adopt a learning orientation
  • Set SMART developmental goals
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Relevant
  • Time-bound
  • Role of Mentees
  • Seek counsel and advice, not a supervisor who
  • directs actions.
  • Be aware of potential pitfalls: Overbearing
  • mentor, mentor exploitation of mentee’s work. Be sensitive to the difference between asking for help/advice from your mentor and demanding favors from your mentor.
  • Synthesize lessons learned from all
  • mentors – become your own person.
  • Recognize dynamics of relationship.
  • Advice to Potential Mentors
  • Recognize that mentee may be uncomfortable
  • asking for help – break ice by sharing some of your career experiences
  • Stay in your zone of expertise/experience
  • Be clear that mentee sets pace of relationship
  • Advise, do not manage
  • Extend mentee’s developmental network – suggest
  • additional mentors to address unique needsRole of Mentors
  • Offer advice that helps mentee develop –
  • role is NOT to make decisions for mentee or micromanage.
  • Train to be efficient. Guidance and advice for one
  • mentee may also be appropriate for another.
  • Be aware of potential pitfalls: overdependence of
  • mentee, mentee exploitation of mentor’s influence. Be sensitive to difference between developing a mentee and using a mentee.
  • Be aware of dynamics of relationship: Developmental
  • needs may change.Distance Mentoring
  • How to use e-mail
  • Use e-mail to set up meetings (face-to-face or phone), clarify plans/goals, pose non-time urgent questions, review plans, maintain contact.
  • Don’t use e-mail to give critical or complex feedback, provide impressions of other’s behavior, provide impressions of third parties, exchange sensitive information.
  • Communication Challenges
  • Listen for nonverbal cues (e.g., pregnant pauses, voice tone, tempo, volume)
  • Push for specific information, clarify meanings
  • Summarize agreements
  • After the Program Ends
  • Many relationships come to a natural end when a
  • mentee learns enough to be independent from specific mentors.
  • New mentoring relationships with others may be
  • more beneficial than continuing an exhausted relationship.
  • Program end may not mean the end of the
  • relationship – informal mentoring can continue if both parties agree.
  • Pilot program will assess how mentoring met needs
  • of both mentees and mentors.
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