Yearbook2010 Building

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  RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY | ROTARY WING AIRCRAfT | SANITARY - ENVIRONMENTALENGINEERING | STRUCTURAL SEISMIC ANDGEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING | TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN fOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INBUILDINGS AND URBAN CONTEXT | TERRITORIALDESIGN AND GOVERNEMENT | URBAN ANDARCHITECTURAL DESIGN | VIRTUAL PROTOTYPESAND REAL PRODUCTS | WATER ENGINEERING| AEROSPACE ENGINEERING | ARCHITECTURALCOMPOSITION | ARCHITECTURE, URBAN DESIGN,CONSERVATION Of HOUSING AND LANDSCAPE |BIOENGINEERING |BUILDING ENGINEERING| DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGIES fOR CULTURAL HERITAGES |ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING | ENERGY | GEOMATICSAND INfRASTRUCTURES | INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING | INDUSTRIAL DESIGNAND MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION | INfORMATIONTECHNOLOGY | INTERIOR DESIGN | MANAGEMENT,ECONOMICS AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING |MANUfACTURING AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS| MATERIALS ENGINEERING | MATHEMATICALMODELS AND METHODS IN ENGINEERING |MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING | PHYSICS| PRESERVATION Of ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE |PROGRAMMING, MAINTENANCE, REHABILITATIONOf THE BUILDING AND URBAN SYSTEMS PhD Yearbook | 2010  9293    B   U   I   L   D   I   N   G    E   N   G   I   N   E   E   R   I   N   G    P   h   D    Y   e   a   r   b   o   o   k    |    2   0   1   0 Chair: Pro. Giuseppe Turchini DOCTORAL PROGRAMIN BUILDING ENGINEERING Formation aims The building sector represents a greatly relevant section in thepanorama of the domestic and European productive systems bothfor its size and for its technical-economic complexity.Furthermore there is a growing complexity determined by theremarkable activity of the manufacturers of materials concerningthe building sector, from new production organizations, from newemergencies connected with sustainability to the control of theenvironmental impact.In addition the interaction of environmental, economic and socio-political, organizational, and procedural factors lead to continuouschanges of the conditions of the demand in the building marketconcerning both product quality and quantity.Inside this complex sector, the engineering discipline section thatsupports the planning of building works has consolidated intostable and protable research lines that involve various scienticdisciplinary sectors connected with the science of materials,environmental issues, energy, well-being, technical plants, tothe organizational aspects, of building and management, to theeconomy. The productive development of the building sectorrequires the right skills to compete nationally and internationallyat all levels.Such competition, more and more characterized by an incentivetowards technological innovation unprecedented in the historyof building, is characterized through important developments ofall the themes that operate in the vast sector of engineering ofthe building processes in all development phases. An authenticand continuous innovation, based on essential binomials asenvironment/development, preservation/use of resources, is notsufciently nourished, in planning terms, by research.It is therefore necessary to strengthen the technological transfertowards the production sites spread over the entire territory, andfor this reason the preparation of high-prole professionals, likethe ones that the Doctoral School intends to produce, becomesessential. This gure operates inside the engineering processesin building systems that are becoming increasingly complex andrequire interdisciplinary engineering talents that, in addition tothe traditional disciplines, invest the building science & technologyon the versants of building physics, building material engineering,the systems’ and components’ service life, building productionengineering and management, safety engineering, appliedeconomy.The research doctorate in building engineering,as a higher level of formation, aims at thedevelopment of the necessary skills forprofessionals with a high technical andmanagerial prole. These professionals couldbecome key workers of public administrations,construction rms, engineering companies,manufacturers, research and development bodiesand of all the structures and bodies that haveto do with the construction processes. Synthetical indication o the phd profles   ∙ Highly technically qualied professionalssuitable for roles as planning and developmentmanagers in building companies, in material,components and system manufacturingindustries and in service companies, primarilyengineering companies.  ∙ Professionals with high technical qualications,suitable for lling consulting and project-manager positions in engineering companies,public structures, professional rms, material,components and system manufacturers asinterpreters of a technological innovation whoare fully aware of demand problems and needsand completely updated from an engineeringanalysis knowledge and instrumentation pointof view. ∙ Highly qualied researchers destined tooperate as planning managers for research andcontrol projects in private and public researchinstitutions and centres (obviously including theUniversity). The ormative programme The formative programme generally develops inthe following way: ∙ The rst year is dedicated to the formulationof the research problem, to the developmentof the rst mastery in the eld, to coveringpossible formative debts and to the attendanceof basic and specialized courses. ∙ The second year is dedicated to the mastery ofthe research problem through the extension ofthe knowledge concerning the objectives of thethesis. ∙ The third year constitutes the most intenseperiod of autonomous and srcinal elaborationof the thesis and its argument.In the development of the thesis, the relationswith other researchers and the periods ofstudy and internship at Italian and foreignresearch centres (stages) are fundamental. Suchexperiences are highly appreciated and favouredby the doctorate.The thesis is carried out with the support of anassistant and its whole course is monitored by theteaching staff through semi-annual disputations.At the end of the doctorate the staff admits(or not) the doctoral candidate to the naldisputation, on the basis of the thesis’s scienticvalidity and srcinality.The doctorate activities are strengthened by thesystematic and operative contact with:  ∙ the most advanced manufacturers of the sector;  ∙ research centres and particularly ITC/CNR inItaly, CSTB in France, CIB (International Councilfor Research and Innovation in Building andConstruction) at an international level, thedoctorate is member of the CIB StudentsChapter;  ∙ the Italian (UNI) and International (ISO,CEN, EOTA, IAI) Headquarters of normativeelaboration;  ∙ the public administrations system;  ∙ the industrial and professional associations thatoperate in the sector.In the last years internships and study periodshave been made possible at these institutions: ∙ University of Gävle (HIG), Sweden ∙ BRE Building Research Establishment – London ∙ CSTB Centre Scientique et Technique duBatiment - Paris  ∙ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory -California -USA  ∙ Aalborg Universitet - Denmark  ∙ Fraunhofer Institute für Solar Energy SystemsISE - München  ∙ Werner Sobek Engineering and Design - NewYork Main topics The topics, that have prevalently been developedthrough multidisciplinary support, draw from thefollowing research areas: 1. Technological and planning innovation in theconstruction sector, both for the section of newbuilding and of refurbishment, is orientatedat facing urgent problems, particularly thosederiving from the environmental sustainabilityand energy strategies:  9495    B   U   I   L   D   I   N   G    E   N   G   I   N   E   E   R   I   N   G    P   h   D    Y   e   a   r   b   o   o   k    |    2   0   1   0 SCHOLARSHIP SPONSORS AssimpredilDIVINA VALENTINO SrlFCC Srl Permasteelisa GroupFumagalli SpaIng SrlIVAS SpaRDZ SpaRigamonti SpaSTO ITALIA SrlTermoisover SrlComune di Verona  ∙ through the analysis and studyof high efciency building components;  ∙ through the analysis and study of buildingsystems that mainly use renewable energysources;  ∙ through the analysis and study of thereactivity of the systems and componentstowards deterioration agents andmechanisms, with the goal to optimizetheir life cycle. 2. The innovation of the productive andmanagerial processes of the industry,the companies and the public administrationsinvolved in the building sector, for newbuildings as well as for the managementand refurbishment of existing buildings:  ∙ through the study of the operative,procedural, managing methods and toolsfor the optimization, qualication andvalidation of such processes, as for exampleproject and construction management,project nancing, value engineering,interoperability. ADVISORY BOARD Antonio Acerbo (Comune di Milano) - Central director of the technical areaClaudio De Albertis (Assimpredil) - PresidentGiuseppe De Martino (AIPPEG) - DirectorGuido Farè (Tecnoform Spa) - General ManagerLibero Ravaioli (UNCSAAL – Unione Nazionale Costruttori Serramenti Alluminio Acciaio e Leghe) -PresidentGiuseppe Rigamonti (Rigamonti Francesco SpA, ANCE – Associazione Nazionale Costruttori Edili) -Chief executive ofcerPiero Torretta (UNI) - PresidentVico Valassi (Unioncamere) - PresidentRoberto Vinci (ITC-CNR Institute for building technologies) - Director  9697    B   U   I   L   D   I   N   G    E   N   G   I   N   E   E   R   I   N   G    P   h   D    Y   e   a   r   b   o   o   k    |    2   0   1   0 INCREMENTAL INNOVATION AND PERfORMANCECOMPLEXIfICATION AS COMPETITIVE STRATEGIESIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  Current historical periodis strongly characterized bycontinuous pushes towardnovelty. The term “innovation”is constantly used, even withouta real innovation in place.If we don’t look at innovationas a “mean” but as a “process”of renewal and performancesimplementation, its meaninggets more complex and it mustbe considered as a evolutionaryphenomenon inside a denedindustrial reality.During my studies I haveconsidered some of the sectorsthat are key technology areas.They recorded a continuouslyincreasing push toward newand higher performances.Despite results are better andbetter, there is always a limit,due to the (human) use thatmakes the innovation usefulto itself, or only for competitivestrategic purposes.The literature shows that thedynamics of ideas development,or innovation research canfollow different paths, notalways predictable andpreviously appraisable, andoften not identiable ina classical model.The matter becomes moredifcult in case of Small/Mediumcompanies, often without astructured R&D department,and in companies whereinnovation is outsourced ordeveloped in other researchcenters like Private Institutesor Universities.In the construction industry,the different chain for productdevelopment and distributionmakes the innovation adoptionslower.The Buyer (last user of the work)doesn’t often actively participateto the choices in the variousmoments of the building processand doesn’t give an immediatefeedback. On the “constructionsite”, between industrialproduction and nished product(building), the different productsare assembled by people (notalways specialized), with all theunknown issues that can ariseand possible modications tothe product performance.The building process andthe nal result depend alsoon others’ choices (peoplewith different charges anddecisional powers like Designers- Construction Companies-Artisans). It may happen thattheir decisions do not reectthe real request from the Buyer.Finally the technologicalcomplexity is often hidden,making difcult, for thebuyer, the understanding andappreciation of the addedvalue in terms of quality andinnovation. In this generalpicture we need to also considerthe construction laws and theobligations from the technicalstandards UNI-ISO. Togetherthey have a considerable impactbut don’t ensure developmentof innovation.If we schematize the productionin phases, we can identifya rst level (phase 1) of industrialproduction of work in progressand nished materials, anda second level (phase 2) ofassembly and nal materialsworkmanship, necessarily donelocally (construction site).Potential developments forinnovation are in phase 1, whilein phase 2 there are many stronglimitations, for various technicaland cultural reasons. Theyobstruct the innovation diffusionand adoption (for both productor system innovation)The research for this thesisis founded on the oppositionof these two phases, with themajor objective to identifya model of development forinnovation, easy to adopt in theindustrial compartment of Small/ Medium Companies, assuringthe adoption during the wholebuilding process.The rst choice is betweenIncremental PerformanceInnovation and RadicalInnovation, different from eachother, both for the approachand for the methodologyof development. My choicehas been on the IncrementalInnovation, which is based onthe assumption to improve thecharacteristics or the functionsof a system/product, maintaining Roberto Francieri a “continuum” betweenwhat it is currently availableand what is innovated. It is NOTthe “progressive development”of products, where companymakes an improvement inproduction in order to optimizeresources and reduce costs.Small/Medium companies oftendo not have R&D departmentfor cost control reasons.Therefore the tool ofIncremental Innovation needsto follow simple procedures toset a rst level of choice for theresearch. This rst choice hasto be shared among the variouspeople working in the company.Besides, the initial choices todene the development strategyare inuenced by: economicvalue of the initial investment,market conditions, producttype, technical comparisonamong competitors, professionalability of the company, strategicalliances, and “time”.As found during the search,timing is fundamentalto propose a model ofimplementation that getsto an Innovated product thathas immediately some marketshare, that means a littlegroup of “rst-users”, whichwill provide a feed-back forthe next implementation andimprovement, with followinggain of bigger market areas.The Incremental PerformanceInnovation models dened inthe thesis are: Innovation by Composition: it develops a differentcomposition of the product,with addition of new materials,for stratigraphy or mixing them.The performances improvementand the different compositioncould result in new potentialuses. New materials couldthen “adapt” to increase thefunctionalities of the new uses; Innovation by Technology: it implements the technologyof the product, or applies a newone. It improves the productperformances but the productcan also change itself into a“system” increasing the eldof use. Also in this casethere can be subsequentimprovements to adapt thesystem to the constructive type; Innovation by Inormation: it implements the productinformation already known,or studies the most greaterpeculiarities of it, deepeninginformation on the productivecycle, and appraising thecharacteristics during theaverage life cycle, the wearand maintenance of thecomponents to the denitionof the end of the life cycle.The research includes the studyof the material recovery options,the recycling, or the type ofwarehousing in the dumps, theevaluation of the incorporatedenergy both during productionand in all the passages of thelife cycle of the product.This last innovation type isthe easiest to adopt andcan be used to evaluateother implementations.The deep technical knowledgeof the product, in terms ofconsumptions (of energy, water,toxic substances etc., duringthe whole production cycle)allows to innovate the differentphases of the system, stronglyreducing consumptionsand environmental impact.For testing purposes I haveexamined some examplesof Incremental Innovation,developed inside the Politecnicoof Milan, in cooperation withsome construction companies,like Brianza Plastica e Velux ItaliaThe information obtained fromanalysis on product/chain/lifecycle should be used as strategiccommunication tool. Theadoption of an evaluation tool(resulting from LCA and EPDdatabases) like Ecolabel, butof greater effectivenessand understanding, couldhelp to report with clarityand simplicity some standardparameters, to use ascomparison among similarproducts. Procedures of priorassessment exist already butthey often force to very complexcalculations that reduce thepossible implementation.The obligation for a clear andcomparable description ofproduct would create a virtuouscircle of competition amongcompanies.Conclusion is that innovationis the tool for the improvementof performances andinformation, that makesthe sector most sensitive tothe choices of development,with dynamics of integration,consistent with the increasingrequest of quality in building.
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