Session 7 - August 2010

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  Unit 1 > Session 7 PDA Introduction to Tutoring ESOL: Language and learning in ESOL 191 Unit 1 > Session 7 This session aims to: ã  introduce the skills of writing (Outcome 3) ã  introduce terminology used to describe writing subskills (Outcome 3) ã  develop correction techniques for writing (Outcome 3) ã  raise awareness of language levels in writing (Outcome 4) ã  revise aspects of language terminology (Outcome 2) We suggest that you allocate 180–200 minutes for the session.  Unit 1 > Session 7 PDA Introduction to Tutoring ESOL: Language and learning in ESOL 192 Focus A Writing  Aim: To introduce the skills of writing To introduce terminology used to describe writing subskills Time needed: 90 minutes Materials: Handouts 1 and 2 Preparation: Source a variety of writing samples for Stage 1 of Task 2 See also Toolkit Sample Session 6, page 64 Notes: Try to include both handwritten and word-processed samples of writing for Task 2 as there is a tendency to only think about handwritten texts when asked to consider what you have recently written. This session introduces writing skills. Session 8 focuses on issues of ESOL literacies and subskills. Task 1 What is writing? Stage 1 Provide a card for each trainee with ‘ S ’ (speaking/speak) on one side and ‘ W ’ (writing/write) on the other. Read out or display each of the statements below. The trainees decide whether the statements refer to either speaking or writing and hold up the appropriate letter. Don’t comment on trainees’ responses until the feedback stage. 1 We acquire or pick up an ability to do this from birth. (speaking) 2 We do this less frequently. (writing) 3 Clear organisation is more important when we do this. (writing) 4 There are no second chances when we do this. (writing) 5 This may involve longer, more complex sentences. (writing) 6 You don’t need to learn an alphabet to do this. (speaking) 7 When we do this, we always have a purpose in mind. (both) Stage 2 When all the sentences have been read/displayed, discuss the answers as a group bringing out the points below.  Unit 1 > Session 7 PDA Introduction to Tutoring ESOL: Language and learning in ESOL 193 Potential feedback ã  In our first language, speaking is acquired from (before) birth. Writing is a learned skill which takes longer to become proficient in. ã  For many people writing is not a frequent activity. Also, it is not a particularly popular activity perhaps because of the need for grammar knowledge, vocabulary, ability to spell etc. It is, however, a very high-value activity. ã  Having an audience affects and moderates what we say. This is more immediate in the process of speaking but is also true of writing. One of the difficulties of writing is imagining the audience. The time difference for feedback in speaking and writing is getting smaller and smaller with new technologies. ã  Writers (unlike speakers) are not usually present to help their audience decode what they are trying to say. Writers, then, need to use everything they can to help make what they are trying to say clear. Careful organisation is one of these tools. ã  With speaking one can generally backtrack, repair, apologise etc. In writing the script is permanent and is far harder to modify or correct. ã  Speaking tends to be based around clauses rather than complete sentences. Writing tends to have longer sentences with a logical internal development. Some types of writing do pare down sentences — texting, diary entries, lists. ã  You have to learn an alphabet (or other written form) to write, but there are many other aspects to writing — layout and style for example. ã  We have a purpose in mind both when we speak and write. Learners need to have a purpose for writing. Task 2 Types and purpose of writing Stage 1 Bring in a few examples of different types of writing (handwritten and word-processed), eg a letter in a newspaper, an e-mail, a shopping list, etc. Show the examples to the trainees and ask them to think quickly of three ways in which they vary. Potential feedback length, purpose, style, register, layout, organisation Stage 2 Provide the trainees with Handout 1. Use Text 1 to demonstrate the task, asking the trainees to consider the headings in the table. The trainees should work in pairs to complete the table. If some pairs finish the task more quickly than others, ask them to think of other types of writing (or use the samples from Stage 1), which they can add to their table. Conduct feedback.  Unit 1 > Session 7 PDA Introduction to Tutoring ESOL: Language and learning in ESOL 194 Potential feedback Purpose (why) Audience (who) Organisation Register (style) Text 1 confirm arrangement (close) friend short sentences, phrases informal Text 2 complain unknown bureaucrat sentences, paragraphs formal Text 3 send greetings friend/family postcard style — focus on verbs informal Text 4 planning self notes, phrases informal Text 5 make an enquiry provider sentences informal Task 3 Writing subskills Stage 1 Display the following on the board or direct the trainees to the table for Task 3: Writing complete sentences Using grammar accurately Using an appropriate writing style Using correct layout Being able to paraphrase sentences Using punctuation correctly Organising ideas effectively Writing compound and complex sentences  Achieving intended purpose  Ask what these are (skills needed for successful writing). Tell the trainees they should look at Text 2 (formal letter) and Text 4 (diary extract) again to decide which subskills are required in order to write each text effectively. Use the first subskill, writing complete sentences , as an example. Ask the trainees in which of the texts this is necessary (Text 2 only). Elicit why full sentences would be inappropriate for a personal diary — not enough space, time issues (especially if electronic), usually written with abbreviations and notes, the writer is the intended audience, there is an element of keeping things hidden and so on.
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