Rights of women in india

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women empowerment is necessary as "WOMEN ARE HONORED WHERE , DIGNITY BLOSSOMS THERE" so women should know their rights and prepare for every life challenging situation
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  • 1. Women Are Honored Where, Divinity Blossoms There Rights and Laws for Empowerment of Women in India Submitted by: Aarti Yadav (8482) Disha Tiwari(8542) Aditi Rastogi(8488) Geetika Varshney(8549) Ambika Mehrotra(8491) Manasvi(8575) Anandita Gautam(8496) Mansi Sharma(8580) Ayushi Gupta(8520) Megha Kumari(8589)
  • 2. CONTENTS • Women Empowerment • Domestic Violence Act • Hindu Succession Act • Equal Remuneration Act • Dowry Prohibition Act • Eve Teasing Act • Maternity Benefits Act • Immoral Traffic Act • Child Marriage Restraint Act • Hindu Adoption And Maintenance Act • Hindu Marriage Act • Hindu Widow Re-Marriage Act • Schemes • Positive Stories • References
  • 3. Women Empowerment Women Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, educational, gender, or economic strength of individuals and communities of women. Women’s empowerment in India is heavily dependent on many different variables that include geographical location (urban/rural), educational Status and social status (caste and class).
  • 4. Need For Women Empowermnent Women Are Deprived Of: • Decision Making Power • Freedom of Movement • Access to Education • Access to Employment • Exposure to Media • Domestic Violence
  • 5. Ways to Empower Women  Providing education  Self employment and Self help groups  Providing minimum needs like nutrition, health, sanitation, housing  Other than this, society should change the mentality towards the word “women”.  Encouraging women to develop in their fields they are good at and make a career.
  • 6. 1:Domestic Violence Act, 2005 “Civil law aim that providing relief to women i.e. wives, mothers, daughters and sisters affected by violence.” The PWDVA includes actual or threatened abuse against women in their homes including those of a physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic nature. It considers more than two – third of married women have experienced some form of sexual of domestic violence including being beaten, raped or forced to provide sex.
  • 7. Through this act, women are entitled to: Protection: The magistrate can pass orders to stop the offender from committing violence communicating with the woman or intimidating her family. Residence: can’t be evicted from shared house. Compensation: can claim damages for mental and physical injuries. Monetary relief and maintenance: including loss of earnings, medical expenses and damage to property. Punishments for acts include a jail sentence of up to 1 year or rupees 20000 fine. Women have the right to get free legal services under the legal services authorities act 1987.
  • 8. 2:Hindu Succession Act,1956 “The Hindu Succession Act,1956 is an act of the parliament of India enacted to amend and codify the laws relating to unwilled succession.” • Any property possessed by a Hindu female is to be held by her absolute property and she is given full power to dealt with it and dispose it of by her will as she likes.
  • 9. • Parts of this act was amended in 2005 and now called by Hindu succession (Amendment) act. • Earlier the act didn’t give daughters equal rights to ancestral property but this disparity was removed by an amendment that came into force on Sep 9,2005.
  • 10. 3:Equal Remuneration Act,1976 1) It extends to the whole of India. 2) Duty of employer to pay equal remuneration to men and women workers for same work or similar nature of work. 3) No discrimination to be made while recruiting men and women workers. “An act to provide for the payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers and for the prevention of discrimination on the ground of sex against women in the matter of employment and for matters connected there with or incidental there to..”
  • 11. Advisory committee :  For the purpose of providing increasing employment opportunities for women, the government shall constitute, one or more advisory committee.  Every advisory committee shall consist of not less than ten members, to be nominated by the appropriate government of which one half shall be women. Act not to apply in certain cases : Any special treatment accorded to women in connection with—  The birth or expected birth of a child,  The terms and condition relating to retirement , marriage or death.
  • 12. 4:Dowry prohibition act 1961 1: It extends to the whole India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir 2: If any person after the commencement of this act, gives or takes dowry, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not ne less than 3 years and with fine which shall not be less than 15 thousand. “Dowry means any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly. By one party to a marriage to the other party to the marriage.”
  • 13. Dowry prohibition officers The state government may appoint as many dowry prohibition officers as it thinks fit and specify the areas in respect of which they shall exercise their jurisdiction and powers under this act. Functions of Officers  To prevent as far as possible, the taking or abetting the taking of, or the demanding of the dowry.  To collect such evidence as may be necessary for the prosecution of persons committing offences under the act
  • 14. 5:Eve Teasing Act, 2011 Eve teasing is a ridiculous form of enjoyment for men and a physical as well as mental torment for women. This is one of the daily problems women in Indian society face. Of all the forms that violence against women can assume, eve teasing is the most ubiquitous and insidious because it is considered normal behavior and not an assault to females.
  • 15. Causes Of Eve Teasing:  Lack of family values  Stereotypical beliefs  Influence by friends  For fun and pleasure  Section 294-IPC: Whoever does any obscene act in any public place, or sings, recites or utters any obscene song, ballad or words, in or near any public place, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine, or with both.
  • 16.  Section 354-IPC: Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, shall be punished with impris­ onment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.  Section 504-IPC: Whoever intentionally insults, and thereby gives provoca­tion to any person, intending or knowing it to be likely that such provocation will cause him to break the public peace, or to commit any other offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.
  • 17. 6:Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 “An act to regulate the employment of women in certain establishments for certain periods before and after child- birth and to provide for maternity benefit and certain other benefit.” • 1961, extends to whole India. • Giving jobs period not less than 2 months. Application of Act:  Every establishment belonging to Government, where persons are employed. [Factories, shops].
  • 18. Facilities provided:  Maternity leave: Every women will be entitled to maternity benefit of 12 weeks.  Option to work from home: This act permit a woman to work from home , depending on work..  Crèche facilities: Woman will be allowed 4 visits to crèche in a day. On 11 August, 2016 Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill introduced in Rajya Sabha by minister for Labor and Employment, Mr. Bandaru Dattatreya.
  • 19. 7:Immoral Traffic(Prevention) Act “Trafficking in Person” has been defined with a provision for punishing any person who is guilty of the offence of trafficking in person for the purpose of prostitution.” • 1956, extends to whole India except Jammu and Kashmir. • Came under the Central Government. • Punishment: 2 to 5years..with 10,000 fine • In case of child: 7 years or upto life time with 10,000 to 2 lakh fine.
  • 20. On May 22, 2006 Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Amendment Bill was passed. • Referred to Chairperson: Shri Janardan Dwivedi. • Police Officer, who enforce this act is lowered from Inspector to Sub­Inspector. 3 issues that is considered:­ a) Legality Of Prostitution b) Publishing Clients c) Trafficking Limited To Prostitution
  • 21. 8:CHILD MARRIAGE RESTRAINT ACT,1929 Child marriages in India have continued despite the enactment of laws for its prohibition as they have adverse consequences on women’s health , growth etc.  Penalties involving in child marriages are provided in Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929  Draft prevention of Child Marriage Bill 2004 is preventing in the Parliament
  • 22. RECOMMENDATIONS • MWCD to advocate compulsory registration of marriages • Age of parties to be verified at the time of marriage
  • 23. 9:THE HINDU ADOPTION AND MAINTAINENCE ACT,1956 This Act was enacted in India along with legislations like the Hindu Marriage Act(1955),the Hindu Succession Act(1956) and the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act(1956) under the leadership of Pt. J.L Nehru. ADOPTION • The adopter must be Hindu and child must be capable of being adopted • They have to have the capacity to provide for the adopted child
  • 24. • Compliance with specifications met to make the adoption valid • Only unmarried Hindu women can legally adopt a child while married can give their consent to adoption by their husbands • The child be the of sixteen or older
  • 25. MAINTAINENCE  A Hindu wife is entitled to be provided for by her husband throughout the duration of her lifetime even if she is allowed to live separately  It is applicable for all marriages before or after the Act  If wife is widowed , then it is duty of her father-in-law to provide for her  Under this Act, the child is guaranteed maintained from his/her parents until he/she ceases to be minor
  • 26. 10:Hindu Marriage act • The Act applies to all forms of Hinduism (for example, to a person who is a Virashaiva, a Lingayat etc…. • The Hindu Marriage Act provides guidance for Hindus to be in a systematic marriage bond. It gives meaning to marriage, cohabiting rights for both the bride and groom, and a safety for their family and children so that they do not suffer from their parental issue.
  • 27. Conditions for marriage • Section 5 of The Hindu Marriage Act specifies that conditions must be met for a marriage to be able to take place. • Void marriages: Either party is under age. The bridegroom should be of 21 years of age and the bride of 18 years • Voidable marriage: both parties must be sound of mind and capable of understanding the implications of marriage • Registration::Section 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act allows a state government to make rules for the registration of Hindu marriages particular to that state, particularly with respect to recording the particulars of marriage as may be prescribed in the Hindu Marriage Register
  • 28. Divorce • Although marriage is held to be divine, the Hindu Marriage Act does permit either party to divorce on the grounds of unhappiness, or if he or she can prove that the marriage is no longer tenable Remarriage • Remarriage is possible once a marriage has been dissolved by a decree of divorce and no longer able to be appealed (whether there was no right of appeal in the first place, or whether the time for appealing has expired, or whether an appeal has been presented but dismissed).
  • 29. Changes Brought About by the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 : 1. The Act has declared that marriages amongst Hindus, Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists, are valid. 2. The minimum age for marriage, 21 for boy and 18 for a girl. 3. Registration of Hindu Marriage. 4. The provision of divorce and the concept of divorce by mutual consent. 5. The provision of re-marriage. 6. Legitimacy of a child born out of either void or voidable marriage. 7. Provision for the custody of children during the pendency of legal proceeding and even after the passing of decree
  • 30. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was legalized on July 16th 1856 and was enacted on July 25th the same year. This cause was championed by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, an important figure of the Bengal Renaissance. Vidyasagar went ahead and provided legal safeguards ensuring that widows do not lose out on any inheritance that they were entitled to by their deceased husbands. According to the act, widows were to give up any such inheritance. This act was particularly targeted at child widows whose husbands had died before the consummation of the marriage. 11: The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act
  • 31. • If the widow re-marrying is a minor whose marriage has not been consummated, she shall not re-marry without the consent of her father, or if she has no father, of her paternal grandfather, or if she has no such grandfather, of her mother, or, failing all these, of her elder brother, or failing also brothers of her next male relative. • Hindu widows for many years were subject to extreme hardships including the practice of sati, a social funeral practice, which required a widow to immolate herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. Sati was finally banned in 1826 due a joint effort by social and religious reformer Raja Ram Mohan Roy and the British, who condemned this inhuman practice.
  • 32. Schemes 1)Short Stay Home For Women and Girls(SSH) • Introduced in 1969 by the department of social welfare as a social defense mechanism. • Aim is to provide temporary accommodation to the girls and women which are homeless. • Provide maintenance and rehabilitative services to women and girls which are suffering from family discord, crime, violence, mental stress are being forced into prostitution.
  • 33. Schemes Cont. 2) Kishori Shakti Yogana • Aims to improve the nutritional, health and development status of adolescent girls • Promote awareness of health, hygiene, nutrition and family care • Link girls to social environment and provide opportunities for going to school • Help them to learning life skills and become productive members of the society
  • 34. Schemes Cont. 3) Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) • Launched by government of India in 1986-87 • Aim is to upgrade skills of women for self and wage employment • The target group includes the rural women and urban poor • Project duration is 5 years • Funds are directly released to different NGO’s
  • 35. Schemes Cont. 4) Swadhar • Envisions a supportive institutional framework for woman victim of difficult circumstances • Provide shelter, food, clothing, and health as well as economic and social security for such women • Visualize the special needs of these women's and take care of them • There is no circumstances in which women should be left unattended or abandoned which could lead to their exploitation and many more…..
  • 36. The Lijjat Papad story • Seven illiterate and poor women borrowed Rs 80 to start a papad business in 1959 , Mumbai(Maharashtra) • Its turnover from Rs 6,196 in the first year went up to Rs 300 crore in the next four decades • 43,000 women on its revolutionary march • Jaywantiben Popat, one of the women involved with this phenomenal spirit, was honored at the ET Awards for her outstanding achievements
  • 37. Mann Deshi Mahila Sahakari Bank • Chetna’s foundation established in 1994 a co-operative bank that is completely operated by women and serves women customers. • The bank was established with help of a group of illiterate women and has now grown into a $562,000 firm by the end of 2011. • In collaboration with HSBC, Mann Deshi Bank established the Udyogini Business School in 2007.
  • 38. SEWA (Self-Employed Women's Association) Started as a trade union, registered in 1972,in Ahmadabad founded by Ela Bhatt organization of self- employed women workers who earn a living through their own labour or small businesses. • SEWA's membership, which is a nominal Rs. 5 a year, includes women from a cross-section of society — from vegetable and fruit hawkers to home-based weavers, potters and manual labourers. • Year Number of Members 1973 320 2002 17,50,000
  • 39. http://www.aicte-india.org/ http://www.wcd.nic.in/sites/default/files/draft%20national%2 http://www.slideshare.net/kushagra21/final-women- empowermwnt http://www.slideshare.net/ArkaBrataBandyapadhyay/women http://www.indiacelebrating.com/social-issues/women-empo http://www.slideshare.net/jjjjrrdd/womens-rights-asm- ppt Refrences
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