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Athens The next few slides should be added to your charts. Below is a copy of the chart you were asked to maintain. NEW TERMS. Timocracy — division of power according to one’s wealth Plutocracy — rule by birth—generally a noble birth (which means that there is also some wealth)
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AthensThe next few slides should be added to your charts. Below is a copy of the chart you were asked to maintain.NEW TERMS
  • Timocracy — division of power according to one’s wealth
  • Plutocracy — rule by birth—generally a noble birth (which means that there is also some wealth)
  • Which system did Solon introduce to Athens?594 b.c.e.SOLON, a eupatrid, makes reforms. EXAMINE HIS REFORMS. WHAT ARE THE PROS & CONS OF EACH?Solon was appointed by the oligarchy to reform Athens:
  • Rewrote Draco’s laws;
  • Abolished mortgage debt & debt slavery;
  • Changed basic qualifications for office holding from BIRTH to WEALTH;
  • Created a Council of 400 that set the agenda for the assembly of all citizens.
  • PROBLEM—Did not grant land to returning freed farmer/slaves; created an urban poor!
  • 594 b.c.e.SOLON, a eupatrid, makes reforms. EXAMINE HIS REFORMS. WHAT ARE THE PROS & CONS OF EACH?Solon was appointed by the oligarchy to reform Athens:
  • Rewrote Draco’s laws;
  • Abolished mortgage debt & debt slavery;
  • Changed basic qualifications for office holding from BIRTH to WEALTH;
  • Created a Council of 400 that set the agenda for the assembly of all citizens.
  • PEISISTRAUS 560 b.c.e.
  • He respected Solon’s system but:
  • Redistributed some land;
  • Built up Athens to help people to become proud of their polis
  • Initiated a “new deal”—public building projects
  • Inaugurated festivals
  • WHY DID HE IMPLIMENT THESE MODIFICATIONS TO SOLON’S SYSTEM?THE AGE OF PERICLES 460-429 b.c.e.
  • Periclean Athens was:
  • Direct democracy—
  • a large number of citizens take direct part in day-to-day affairs of govt.
  • Public officials were paid a fixed salary (stipend)
  • Jury system—
  • male citizens over 30 yrs. Of age were chosen by lot to serve on the jury for one year.
  • Jurors were paid a stipend.
  • Public Works Projects were initiated.
  • Public festivals were given.
  • Ended “oligarchy” of elder aristocrats
  • LET’S EXAMINE SOME OF PERICLES’ POLICIES.THE AGE OF PERICLES 460-429 b.c.e.
  • Periclean Athens was:
  • Direct democracy—membership was limited to only male Athenian citizens—
  • a large number of citizens take direct part in day-to-day affairs of govt.
  • Public officials were paid a fixed salary (stipend)
  • Jury system—
  • male citizens over 30 yrs. of age were chosen by lot to serve on the jury for one year.
  • Jurors were paid a stipend.
  • Public Works Projects were initiated.
  • Public festivals were given.
  • Ended “oligarchy” of elder aristocrats
  • THE PELOPONNESIAN WARS WEAKENED THE POLEISHOW HAD HUBRIS + HEGEMONY LEAD TO CONFLICTS?Why was Rome able to conquer the Hellenistic world?CHAPTER 4 CLASSICAL AGE EMPIRESROME FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIREThe “patricians” (Roman Aristocracy) ran the Senate. ANNUAL ELECTIONS
  • 2 Consuls—Elected by the Senate.
  • 1 term of service
  • Supervised army & government business
  • Senate of 300 elderly men—
  • Senate elected 2 consuls—heads of state—who could serve for only 1 term (annual).
  • In event of war the Senate could elect a DICTATOR who could serve for only 6 months.
  • Patricians elected the Senate.
  • ARE THERE CHECKS & BALANCES IN THIS SYSTEM? EXPLAIN.
  • FOR WHOM DOES THIS SYSTEM WORK?
  • WHY RESTRICT THE DICTATORS TO ONLY 6 MOS. IN OFFICE?
  • WHY DID ROMAN REPUBLIC SUCCEED POLITICALLY & MILITARISTICALLY? Let’s examine each:
  • The theory of expanding defense—
  • Powerful Armies—as a result of diffusion, the military borrowed ideas, skills & technologies.
  • Personal Investment—
  • Soldiers had a personal investment in their government because of the republican nature of things.
  • Geography—
  • Italy’s lands made it easier for the military to travel by foot. Also, Rome built many roads & bridges to facilitate military travel.
  • Treatment of Conquered Peoples—
  • The Republic offered full or partial citizenship to them. This will create allegiance.
  • PUNIC WARS—Why did Rome go to war with the North Africans?PUNIC WARSRome went to war with Carthage.
  • Just War Scenario: Rome felt Carthage a threat to its allies in S. Italy + to the supply of grain from Sicily.
  • REAL REASONS FOR WAR?
  • Rome coveted: Carthaginian colonies.
  • Rome feared Carthaginian naval might.
  • PUNIC WARS (421-146 b.c.e.)
  • 1st –Rome wins & gains Sicily. (421 b.c.e.)
  • Destroys Carthage’s entire naval fleet. (Only land infantry left!)
  • 2nd—War 1. Hannibal wins (216 b.c.e.)
  • Hannibal invaded Italy through the North; at battle of Cannae. Hannibal tricked Romans into believing that he was retreating about 50,000 Romans were killed.
  • —War 2. Scipio of Rome wins (204 b.c.e.) Battles Carthage in Spain & North Africa
  • 3rd—Rome defeats Carthage. (146 b.c.e.)
  • Romans burned Carthage to the ground
  • Sold its survivors into slavery.
  • Poisoned the ground with salt so that nothing would grow in it.
  • How does Roman military & engineering innovation show us Roman spirit?At the start of the Punic wars Rome had superior land forces, Carthage had superior naval forces. To overcome their weakness, the Romans constructed several fleets of several hundred ships. Each ship was manned by 300 rowers & 120 soldiers. The ships had grappling hooks & movable gangways; thus, they could seize the enemy ship & board it!ROMAN LEGIONSIGNS OF CHANGEGracchi brothers 2nd century b.c.e.
  • "When Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus sought to establish the liberty of the common people and expose the crimes of the oligarchs, the guilty nobles took fright and opposed their proceedings by every means at their disposal" - Cicero.
  • SIGNS OF CHANGE—THE RISE OF JULIUS CAESARTHE 1ST TRIUMVIRATE = Caesar + Crassus + Pompey(60 b.c.e.)Why might a retired consul, a wealthy non-patrician & a successful naval military leader make a political pact or union?While Caesar was away, Pompey aligned himself with foes of Caesar. He along with his colleagues passed laws to ruin Caesar. In 49 b.c.e., when Caesar’s term in office—as commander in Gaul— ended, Caesar knew that if he returned to his homeland, he risked death. Thus, he had to march into Rome.His march was successful. He overthrew his enemies.WHY DID CAESAR CALL HIMSELF DICTATOR WHEN HE TOOK CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC?2nd Triumvirate (43 b.c.e.) Octavian + Marcus Antonius + Lepidus
  • Octavian—
  • Caesar’s nephew & adopted heir;
  • Marcus Antonius (Shakespeare’s Mark Antony)—
  • the heir to Caesar’s forces—had a military under his command;
  • Lepidus—
  • a powerful politician who happened to have lots of money.
  • How does this triumvirate compare with the 1st?2nd Triumvirate (43 b.c.e.) At 1st they defeated the forces that had killed Caesar. Then Lepidus was shunted aside. Octavian & Antonius controlled Rome for 10 years.Why didn’t Octavian and Antonius just agree to become & remain Consuls?The 2nd Triumvirate ended in jealousy and violence—Octavian forced Lepidus to retire.
  • Octavian & Mark Antony became rivals.
  • Mark Antony joined forces with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt.
  • Octavian accused Mark Antony of treason to Rome.
  • War.
  • Antony & Cleopatra committed suicide.
  • Octavian rules.
  • Accepted title of Augustus—Instead called himself princeps or 1st citizen.
  • Why did Augustus called himself “Princeps” or 1st citizen?Knew Romans hated kings. Later called his regime “Augustan Principate”PRINCEPSWhy did Augustus call himself “Princeps” or 1st citizen?Imagine you are Augustus, how will you maintain power and at the same time win the respect of the powerful Senate?WHAT PROBLEMS MIGHT THE EMPIRE FACE?
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