Hydraulic structures

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This is a presentation on various hydraulic structures and their uses and cross sections which will help a person to get acquainted with the most important hydraulic structures that are in use in this current world.
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  • 1. HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES A presentation on 1
  • 2. Topics: We will discuss- 1. DAM 2. BRIDGES 3. CULVERTS 4. SLUICE GATES 5. AQUEDUCTS 6. SIPHONS Presented By- Nusrat Nasreen Khan, Syeda Khushnuma Wasim, M A Rafsan Mazumder, Faisal Razy Anqur, A. S. M. Akram Samrat 2
  • 3. DAM 3
  • 4. What is Dam? A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground steams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped- storage hydroelectricity are often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. 4
  • 5. Watertight Sufficient Strength Releasing Water Flood Water Flow How Does Dam Work? A dam must be watertight so that water does not leak out of the dam and escape downstream. A dam wall must have sufficient strength to stand permanently under its own weight especially when at least part of the dam wall is saturated with water and to resist the water pressure in the lake upstream of the dam. A dam must have some way of releasing water in controlled amounts as it is needed an outlet valve of some type. A dam must have some means whereby these large volumes of flood water can flow around the dam without causing damage to the dam itself. 5
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  • 9. Storage Capacity of 350×106 m3 producing up to 250,000 tons a day of tailings Embankment ratio about 4:1 Syncrude Tailings Dam, Canada Holding 11,600,000 acre feet of water Discharge capacity of 18,406 cubic meters/s The main dam wall stretching 2,743 meters Tarbela Dam, Pakistan SOME OF THE WORLD’S GREATEST DAMS 9
  • 10. Why Dam is Important? To provide a supply of water for towns, cities and mining sites To generate electricity in hydro- electric power stations To help control or mitigate floods To provide a supply of water for the irrigation of crops 10
  • 11. BRIDGES 11
  • 12. What is a BRIDGE? A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. 12
  • 13. Fluid Travelling to Mid- Span Varying Loads Pinned Connection Horizontal Sideway Direction As the hydraulic fluid is pushed under pressure, the fluid travels through pipes eventually leading to a vertical shaft leading to the mid-span of the bridge. A bridge has the ability to handle varying loads (wind/ice) and possesses smooth acceleration and deceleration In Arch based bridges the main forces are directed in a horizontal sideways direction. In arch bridges at the midpoint of the arch there is a pinned connection, essentially making it a three hinged arch How Does a Bridge Work? 13
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  • 16. CROSS SECTION 16
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  • 19. Pedestrian Footbridge Water Transportat ion Vehicular Transportat ion Light Vehicles The Uses of Hydraulic Bridges 19
  • 20. Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Sydney Harbor Bridge World’s Famous Bridge 20
  • 21. CULVERTS 21
  • 22. A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction. Typically embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. What is a CULVERT? 22
  • 23. TYPES OF CULVERTS Box culvert Arch culvert Pipe culvertBridge culvert Pipe Single or Multiple Pipe Arch Single or Multiple Box Culvert Single or Multiple Bridge Culvert Arch Culvert 23
  • 24. How Does a Culvert Work? Performance Curves Inlet and Outlet Control Roadway Overtopping For inlet control, the control section is at the upstream end of the barrel, whereas for outlet control, it is at the downstream end of the culvert Roadway overtopping deals with the rising of headwater to the elevation of the roadway The culvert performance curve is made up of the controlling portions of the inlet, outlet and roadway overtopping performance curve 24
  • 25. CROSS SECTION 25
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  • 28. Carrying traffic Safe Passag e in arable farm Conveyin g Water Culvert is used to form a bridge-like structure to carry traffic. Culvert is used to convey water from one area to another, usually from one side of a road to the other side. Culvert is an integral part of any arable farm providing a safe passage over ditch fields into arable fields The Uses of Culvert 28
  • 29. SLUICE GATE 29
  • 30. What is Sluice Gate? A sluice gate is a mechanism used to cut off or obstruct the passage of a fluid, normally water. They have three main parts: a gate, a frame and a power mechanism. They can be designed for different loads of water and operating heights, according to the requirements of the installation. A gate A power mechanism A frame 30
  • 31. Threaded rod system Hydraulic System Manual Raise and Lowering Electrically driven hoisting system How Does Sluice Gate Work? Many sluice gates are moved by means of a threaded rod system, which needs to be regularly cleaned and greased. When gates are used in applications with a large amount of water pressure, they are raised and lowered by hydraulic systems to control the sluice gate flow. Sometimes in smaller uses, such as in cranberry bogs, the gates are raised and lowered manually. At other times than manual, an electrically-driven hoisting system is used. 31
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  • 33. CROSS SECTION 33
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  • 36. Irrigation Channels Sewage Treatment Stations (WWTP) Drinking Water Treatment Stations (ETAP) Sewers and Reservoirs What is the Use of Sluice Gate? 36
  • 37. AQUEDUCT 37
  • 38. What is an AQUEDUCT? An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water. The term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. The simplest aqueducts are small ditches cut into the earth. Modern aqueducts may also use pipelines. 38
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  • 40. CROSS SECTION 40
  • 41. OPEN CHANNEL PIPE UNDER GROUND TUNNEL Usually the smaller waterway’s discharge passes above the large one. carries the discharge of one waterway above the other. Aqueduct is a structure constructed at the intersection of two waterways. How does an aqueduct work? 41
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  • 43. Irrigation of croplands Supply drinking water Help drought prone areas with water supplies Control flood uses of aqueducts 43
  • 44. SIPHON 44
  • 45. What is Siphon? Siphon refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes, but in the narrower sense it refers specifically to a tube in an inverted U shape which causes a liquid to flow uphill, above the surface of the reservoir, without pumps, powered by the fall of the liquid as it flows down the tube under the pull of gravity and is discharged at a level lower than the surface of the reservoir whence it came. 45
  • 46. Bernoulli’s Principle Unlike a Manometer Energy Difference A restatement of conservation of energy principle in that the sum of all energy at any given point in the siphon flow is constant. Operates as a measurement of two pressures in static balance when the inlet and the outlet are at the same level. A siphon works because gravitational potential energy difference between liquid in the upper reservoir and lower reservoir leaves reduced pressure at the top of the siphon proportional to the height differences. How Siphon Works 46
  • 48. CROSS SECTION 48
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  • 51. Evacuating Water Transferring Water Waterworks and Industry Self-constructed siphons, made of pipes or tubes, can be used to evacuate water from cellars after flooding. Siphoning is common in irrigated fields to transfer a controlled amount of water from a ditch, over the ditch wall, into furrows. Large siphons are used in municipal waterworks and industry. Their size requires control via valves at the intake and outlet of the How Siphon is Important? 51
  • 52. 52 THANK YOU
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