Gawadar Mega Project

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Gawadar to become a: Viable and Vibrant, Transit and Transshipment Port, and Excellent Recreational City and a Bustling Commercial Center. To manage a planned growth of the city with an effective road access network, environmental and investors friendly process and supportive social service facilities. Gawadar Gawadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, on the Arabian Sea. It is strategically located between three increasingly important regions: the oil-rich Middle East, heavily
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    Gawadar to become a: Viable and Vibrant, Transit and Transshipment Port, and ExcellentRecreational City and a Bustling Commercial Center.   To manage a planned growth of the city with an effective road access network,environmental and investors friendly process and supportive social service facilities. Gawadar Gawadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, on theArabian Sea.It is strategicallylocated between three increasingly important regions: the oil-richMiddle East,  heavilypopulatedSouth Asiaand theeconomicallyemerging andresource-laden region of  Central Asia. Gawadar Port became operational in 2008, with the first ship to dock bringing 52000 tonnes of wheatfromCanada. Minister of Ports and ShippingSardar Nabil Ahmed Khan Gabolofficially inaugurated the port on 21 December 2008. China hasacknowledged that Gwadar’s strategic value is no less than that of theKarakoramHighway,In addition to Gawadar serving as a potential Chinese naval anchor, Beijing isalso interested in turning it into an energy-transport hub by building an oil pipeline fromGawadar into Chinese-ruledXinjiang. The planned pipeline will carry crude oil sourcedfromArabandAfricanstates. Such transport by pipeline will cut freight costs and also help insulate the Chinese imports from interdiction by hostile naval forces in case of any majorwar.Commercially, it is hoped that the Gawadar Port would generate billions of dollarsinrevenuesand create at least two million jobs.   In 2007, the government of Pakistan handedover port operations toPSA Singaporefor 25 years, and gave it the status of a Tax FreePort for the following 40 years. The main investors in the project arePakistaniGovernmentandPeople's Republic of China.  1  History The region remained on the sidelines of historyfor amillennium, until theArab-Muslim  armyof Muhammad bin Qasimcaptured thetownof Gawadar in 711 CE and over the intervening amount of time the area was contested by various powers, including theMughalsand theSafavids. ThePortuguesecaptured,sackedand burnt Gawadar in 1581, and this was then followed by almost two centuries of local rule by the variousBalochi tribes. The city was visited byOttomanAdmiralSidi Ali Reisin 1550s. According to him, the inhabitants of Gawadar wereBalochand their chief was Malik Jelaleddin, son of Malik Dinar. In 1783, theKhanof Kalatgrantedauthorityover Gawadar toTaimur Sultan, the defeated ruler of Muscat. When thesultanretook Muscat, he was to continue his rule in Gawadar by appointing agovernor.Until 1958 Gawadar was part of Oman but was transferred to Pakistan on 8 September,1958. It was integrated within the Balochistan on 1 July, 1977 and became a full sub-division of the Gawadar District. It was then made part of theBalochistanprovince. In 2002, theGawadar Portprojectwas begun in the town. Thegovernment of Pakistanwants todevelopthe entire area in order to reduce its dependence inshippingon the port of  Karachi.By the end of 2004 the first phase had been completed. Historical Info Located at the entrance of the Persian Gulf and about 460 kms from Karachi, Gawadar hashad immense Geostrategic significance on many accounts. The continued unstable regionalenvironment in the Persian Gulf in particular as a result of the Iran/Iraq war, the Gulf warand the emergence of the new Central Asian States has added to this importance.Considering the Geo-economic imperative of the regional changes, the ADB’s Ports MasterPlan studies considered an alternate to the Persian Gulf Ports to capture the transit trade of the Central Asian Republic (CAR) as well as the trans-shipment trade of the region. BothKarachi and PQA were considered for such development but were found unattractive tomajor shipping lines due to the remoteness from the main shipping routes, the limitations of draft for mother ships and large bulk oil carriers and the comparative long turn aroundtimes. The ADB studies, however considered Gawadar to have the most advantageouslocation for such an alternative port in the region, which could handle mother ships andlarge oil tankers in due course. Keeping that aspect in view as well as the inherent strategicand economic benefits that Gawadar Port offered, the transport plan of the 8th Five YearPlan (1993-94) of Pakistan included the development of Gawadar Port as an essentialelement of its aims and objectives. Technical and financial feasibilities therefore were undertaken resulting in decisions for the development of Gawadar Port by the Govt. of Pakistan.The Project started on 22 March 2002, is on fast track and completed in schedule time i.e.March 2005. In fact it would surprise many that with initiative and calculated risk, we havereceived merchant ships since Jan 2003 and have been able to off load hundreds of tones of cargo imported for the Project, thus saving precious time and money which otherwise isrequired for transportation of the same cargo by road from Karachi/PQA to Gawadar. Administration 2  Being district headquarters, the town of Gawadar is the chief city of Gawadar Tehsil, thetehsilis administratively subdivided into fiveUnion councils,three of which form Gawadar city, and these are: ã Central Gawadar ã Gawadar Southern ã Gawadar Northern Culture Gwadar's location and history have given it uniquecultures. TheArabicinfluence upon Gawadar is strong as a consequence of theOmaniera. The area also has a remarkablereligious diversity, being home to not onlySunniandZikriMuslims, but also to groups of  Christians,Hindus,Parsis, and variousminoritiessuch as theAhmadies. Transport In 1993, Pakistan started feasibility studies for the development of a major deepwaterseaport at Gawadar. The port project commenced on 22 March 2002 with the first phasecompleted in December 2005.The construction of the port has spurred other major infrastructure projects in the area.This includes the 700 kmMakran Coastal Highwaywhich is now complete. The road linksKarachi with several ports along the coast includingOrmara, Pasni, and Gawadar and will be extended to the Iranian border in the future. The highway has reduced travel time toKarachi from 48 hours to only 7 hours. Other road projects include the Gwadar-Quetta-Chaman road which is due for completion in 2006 and a road link to the town of Khuzdar in eastern Balochistan. There are also plans for a terminal for passenger ships.The Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan has earmarked 3000 acres of land forGawadarInternational Airportwhich will be built 26 km away to the northeast of the existing airporttowards Pasni. The new airport will be given international status. Physical Features / Topography The coastline of Gawadar District extends in an east-west direction and it is almost entirelydesert. The elevation of Makran coast range is upto about 1000 meters above the sea level.In Gawadar District, soil is of two types: alluvial soil and litho sols and rigosols. The Valleyof Dasht River in the western part of the district and the Kulanch valley in the north consistof alluvial soil. The mountainous area of the district is covered with litho sols and rigosols.Limestone, shale and sandstone are the main rocks involved in the formation of this area. 3  Rivers and Streams The important rivers and streams in the district include Shadi Kaur, Swar and Dasth Riverwith its tributaries Nilag and Daddeh. Climate The climate of Gawadar, elevated at 0-300 meters above sea level, is drying arid hot. It isplaced in “warm summer and mild winter” temperature region. The oceanic influencekeeps the temperature lower than that in the interior in summer and higher in winter. Theuniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the coastal region in Balochistan. Geopolitical importance The Gawadar deep-sea port emerges as a place of great strategic value, enhancingPakistan's importance in the whole region, extending from the Persian Gulf through theIndian Ocean to Southeast Asia and the Far East.Gawadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the importantStraits of Hormuz, through which more than 13 million bpd of oil passes. It is strategically locatedbetween three increasingly important regions of the world: the oil-richMiddle East,heavilypopulatedSouth Asiaand the economically emerging and resource-richCentral Asia. The construction of the Gawadar deep-sea port is just one component of a largerdevelopment plan which includes building a network of roads connecting Gawadar with therest of Pakistan, such as the 650 km Coastal Highway to Karachi and 188 km Gwadar-Turbat road. This network of roads connects with China through the Indus Highway.Pakistan, China, Kazakhistan, Kyrgizstan and Uzbekistan are developing extensive roadand rail links from Central Asia and the Chinese province of Xinjiangto the Arabian Seacoast.China is going to be the beneficiary of Gwadar's most accessible international trade routesto the Central Asian republics and Xinjiang. By extending its East-West Railway from theChinese border city of Kashi to Peshawar in Pakistan's northwest, Beijing can receive cargoto and from Gawadar along the shortest route, from Karachi to Peshawar. The rail network could also be used to supply oil from the Persian Gulf to Xinjiang. Pakistan's internal railnetwork can also provide China with rail access to Iran. Geo-Political Importance Of Gawadar Dubai is the hub of business not only for Gulf but also for rest of the world includingEurope, United States, Africa, China and Central Asian States. The gulf region is facingmany political problems at the moment and huge disturbances are expected in the comingyears. In such a scenario, a substitute of Dubai is essential to be located before the crisis hits 4
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