Final Survey Report Bangladesh

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Bio-Gas report.
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    1 Final Report on Technical Study of Biogas Plants Installed in Bangladesh Submitted to: National Program on Domestic Biogas in Bangladesh A Partnership Program of Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) and Infrastructure Development Company Ltd (IDCOL) Submitted by: Prakash C. Ghimire Renewable Energy Consultant Development Partners - Nepal December 2005    2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................................5   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................................................................................9   ABBREVIATIONS......................................................................................................................................................10   1.   INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................11   1.1   B ACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................................11   1.2   S TUDY R  ATIONALE .....................................................................................................................................12   1.3   O BJECTIVE AND S COPE ................................................................................................................................12   1.4   A PPROACH AND M ETHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................12   1.4.1   Study Tools.............................................................................................................................................12   1.4.2 Sampling................................................................................................................................................13   1.4.3    Methodology..........................................................................................................................................14   1.5   L IMITATIONS ...............................................................................................................................................16   2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARECTERISTCS..................................................................................................17   2.1   D EMOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................17   2.2   E CONOMIC S TATUS .....................................................................................................................................18   2.2.1   Occupation.............................................................................................................................................18   2.2.2    Land Holdings........................................................................................................................................18   2.2.3    Agricultural Production........................................................................................................................19   2.2.4    Livestock Farming.................................................................................................................................19   2.2.5    Income-Expenditure Pattern.................................................................................................................20   2.3   E DUCATIONAL S TATUS ...............................................................................................................................20   3. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BIOGAS PLANT..................................21   3.1   C ONSTRUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................21   3.1.1    Plant Location........................................................................................................................................21   3.1.2    Reason and Year of Installation............................................................................................................21   3.1.3    Decision Making for the Installation....................................................................................................22   3.1.4   Type and Size of Plant...........................................................................................................................22   3.1.5   Construction Management....................................................................................................................22   3.1.6     Financing for Construction...................................................................................................................23   3.2   O PERATION ..................................................................................................................................................25   3.2.1    Plant Feeding.........................................................................................................................................25   3.2.2    Frequency of Operational Activities.....................................................................................................28   3.3   A FTER  - SALE - SERVICES ................................................................................................................................29   3.4   T RAINING AND O RIENTATION TO U SERS .....................................................................................................29   3.5   M AINTENANCE ............................................................................................................................................30   3.6   G AS P RODUCTION AND U SE ........................................................................................................................30   4.   PHYSICAL STATUS AND FUNCTIONING OF BIOGAS PLANT..........................................................33   4.1   P LANT C OMPONENTS ..................................................................................................................................33   4.1.1    Inlet Tank with Mixing Device and Inlet Pipe......................................................................................33   4.1.2    Digester Attached with Dome (Gas Holder).........................................................................................33   4.1.3    Main Gas Pipe and Turret.....................................................................................................................34   4.1.4   Outlet (Displacement Chamber) System...............................................................................................34   4.1.5   Slurry Pits (Composing Pits).................................................................................................................35   4.1.6     Pipeline and Fittings..............................................................................................................................35   4.1.7    Gas Stove and Gas Lamps.....................................................................................................................36    4.2   C ONDITION OF B IOGAS P LANTS ..................................................................................................................36   4.3   F UNCTIONAL S TATUS ..................................................................................................................................40   4.4   E FFICIENCY OF B IOGAS P LANT ...................................................................................................................42   4.5   U SERS ’   P ERCEPTION ....................................................................................................................................44   4.5.1    Perception on Plant Performance.........................................................................................................44   4.5.2    Perception on Merits and Demerits of Biogas......................................................................................45   4.5.3   Suggestions for Future Program...........................................................................................................47       3 5.   IMPACTS OF BIOGAS ON USERS...............................................................................................................48   5.1   I MPACTS ON T IME S AVING AND W ORKLOAD R  EDUCTION ..........................................................................48   5.1.1   Cooking..................................................................................................................................................48   5.1.2   Collection of Water................................................................................................................................48   5.1.3    Plant Feeding.........................................................................................................................................48   5.1.4   Collection of Fuel..................................................................................................................................48   5.1.5   Cleaning of Cooking Vessels/Utensils...................................................................................................48   5.1.6    Caring of Animals..................................................................................................................................49   5.2   I MPACT ON S AVING OF C ONVENTIONAL F UEL S OURCES ............................................................................50   5.3   I MPACT OF B IO - SLURRY ..............................................................................................................................52   6.   FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS................................................................................................54   6.1   F INANCIAL A  NALYSIS .................................................................................................................................54   6.2   E CONOMIC A  NALYSIS .................................................................................................................................58   7.   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION...............................................................................................59   7.1   C ONCLUSION ...............................................................................................................................................59   7.2   R  ECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................................................59   7.2.1    Linking Biogas Program with Government Initiatives.........................................................................60   7.2.2    Ensuring Availability of Feeding Material...........................................................................................60   7.2.3    Improvement in the Quality of Construction.........................................................................................60   7.2.4    Formulation of Repair and Maintenance Mechanism..........................................................................62   7.2.5    Private Sector Development..................................................................................................................62   7.2.6     Program Integration..............................................................................................................................63   7.2.7     Linking Biogas Program with Poverty Alleviation...............................................................................63   7.2.8    Developing Effective Partnership.........................................................................................................64   7.2.9   Study on Performance of Existing Plants..............................................................................................65   7.2.10   Orientation on Toilet Attachment and Effective Use of Slurry........................................................65   7.2.11    Research & Development.................................................................................................................65   7.2.12    Motivation and Technology Promotion............................................................................................65   7.2.13    Miscellaneous...................................................................................................................................67    8.   REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................................68   ANNEXES.....................................................................................................................................................................70   Annex-1: Information on Sampled Biogas Households Annex-2: Participants in Consultative Meeting on Household Survey Questionnaires Annex-3: Designs of BCSIR and GS Models of Biogas Plant Annex-4: Participants in Consultative Meeting on Draft Final Report Annex-5: Household Survey Questionnaires      4 Lists of Tables Table-1.1: Biogas Plants Sampled for the Study Table-2.1: Population Pattern Table-2.2: Occupation of Household Members Table-2.3: Land Holding Pattern Table-2.4: Number of Cattle Owned Table-2.5: Educational Status of Household Members Table-3.1: Motivating Factors to Install Biogas Plant Table-3.2: Cost of Installation of Biogas Plant Table-3.3: Types of Feeding Materials in Use Table-3.4: Dung production Table-3.5: Quantity of Feeding Material Produced Table-3.6: Biogas Plant Feeding Pattern Table-3.7: Frequency of Operation of Biogas Plant Components Table-3.8: Training on O&M of Biogas Plant Table-3.9: Major Repairs Works Carried Out Table-3.10: Amount Spent on Repair Works Table-4.1: Indicators for Categorization of Biogas Plants Table-4.2: General Condition of Biogas Plants Table-4.3: Relationship between Training Received and Functional Status of Plant Table-4.4: Relationship between Feeding and Functional Status of Biogas Plants Table-4.5: Efficiency of Biogas Plants Table-4.6: Relationship between User’s Satisfaction and Plant Efficiency Table-4.7: User’s Perception on Merits of Biogas Plant Table-4.8: User’s Perception on Demerits of Biogas Plant Table-5.1: Time Saved after the Installation of Biogas Plant Table-5.2: Saving of Conventional Fuel after the Installation of Biogas Plant Table-5.3: Financial Gain from Saving of Conventional Fuel Table-5.4: Financial Saving in Biogas Households Table-5.5: Advantages of Biogas over Conventional Fuel Sources Table-6.1a: Financial Analysis (Based upon Cost of Installation) Table-6.1b: Financial Analysis (Based upon Estimate) Lists of Figures Figure-1.1: Location of the Study Districts Figure-1.2: Methodology Adopted during the Study Figure 2.1: Distribution of Family Members Figure-3.1: Biogas Use Pattern Figure-3.2: Stove Burning Hours Figure-4.1: Functional Status of Biogas Plants Figure-4.2: Users’ Level of Satisfaction Figure-5.1: Time Used for Biogas Related Activities Figure-6.1: Financial Viability of Biogas Plants
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