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1. THE HANDBOOK OF JOURNALISM STUDIES This handbook charts the growing area of journalism studies, exploring the current state of theory and setting an agenda for future…
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  • 1. THE HANDBOOK OF JOURNALISM STUDIES This handbook charts the growing area of journalism studies, exploring the current state of theory and setting an agenda for future research in an international context. The volume is structured around theoretical and empirical approaches, and covers scholarship on news production and organizations; news content; journalism and society; and journalism in a global context. Empha- sizing comparative and global perspectives, each chapter explores: Key elements, thinkers, and texts• Historical context• Current state-of-the-art• Methodological issues• Merits and advantages of the approach/area of studies• Limitations and critical issues of the approach/area of studies• Directions for future research• Offering broad international coverage from top-tier contributors, this volume ranks among the first publications to serve as a comprehensive resource addressing theory and scholarship in journalism studies. As such, The Handbook of Journalism Studies is a must-have resource for scholars and graduate students working in journalism, media studies, and communication around the globe. A Volume in the International Communication Association Handbook Series. Karin Wahl-Jorgensen is Reader in the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Stud- ies, Cardiff University, Wales. Her work on media, democracy, and citizenship has been pub- lished in more than 20 international journals as well as in numerous books. Thomas Hanitzsch is Assistant Professor in the Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research at the University of Zurich. He founded the ICA’s Journalism Studies Division and has published four books and more than 50 articles and chapters on journalism, comparative com- munication research, online media, and war coverage.
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION (ICA) HANDBOOK SERIES Robert T. Craig, Series Editor Strömbäck/ Kaid – The Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World Wahl-Jorgensen/Hanitzsch – The Handbook of Journalism Studies
  • 3. THE HANDBOOK OF JOURNALISM STUDIES Edited by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen Thomas Hanitzsch
  • 4. First published 2009 by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2009 Taylor & Francis All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopy- ing and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data The handbook of journalism studies / [edited] by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch. p. cm. — (ICA handbook series) Includes index. 1. Journalism. I. Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin. II. Hanitzsch, Thomas, 1969- PN4724.H36 2008 070.4—dc22 2008024854 ISBN10 HB: 0-8058-6342-7 ISBN10 PB: 0-8058-6343-5 ISBN10 EB: 1-4106-1806-4 ISBN13 HB: 978-0-8058-6342-0 ISBN13 PB: 978-0-8058-6343-7 ISBN13 EB: 978-1-4106-1806-1 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to” ISBN 0-203-87768-3 Master e-book ISBN
  • 5. v Contents Series Editor’s Foreword ix Robert T. Craig Preface xi Contributors xiii I. INTRODUCING JOURNALISM STUDIES 1 Introduction: On Why and How We Should Do Journalism Studies 3 Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch 2 Journalism History 17 Kevin G. Barnhurst and John Nerone 3 Journalism and the Academy 29 Barbie Zelizer 4 Journalism Education 42 Beate Josephi II. NEWS PRODUCTION 5 News Organizations and Routines 59 Lee B. Becker and Tudor Vlad 6 Journalists as Gatekeepers 73 Pamela J. Shoemaker, Tim P. Vos, and Stephen D. Reese 7 Objectivity, Professionalism, and Truth Seeking in Journalism 88 Michael Schudson and Chris Anderson 8 Reporters and Their Sources 102 Daniel A. Berkowitz 9 Gender in the Newsroom 116 Linda Steiner
  • 6. vi CONTENTS 10 Convergence and Cross-Platform Content Production 130 Thorsten Quandt and Jane B. Singer III. NEWS CONTENT 11 Agenda Setting 147 Renita Coleman, Maxwell McCombs, Donald Shaw, and David Weaver 12 News Values and Selectivity 161 Deirdre O’Neill and Tony Harcup 13 Nature, Sources, and Effects of News Framing 175 Robert M. Entman, Jörg Matthes, and Lynn Pellicano 14 News, Discourse, and Ideology 191 Teun A. van Dijk 15 Rethinking News and Myth as Storytelling 205 S. Elizabeth Bird and Robert W. Dardenne 16 The Commercialization of News 218 John H. McManus IV. JOURNALISM AND SOCIETY 17 Journalism and Democracy 237 Brian McNair 18 Journalism, Public Relations, and Spin 250 William Dinan and David Miller 19 Alternative and Citizen Journalism 265 Chris Atton 20 Journalism Law and Regulation 279 Kyu Ho Youm 21 Journalism Ethics 295 Stephen J. A. Ward 22 Journalism and Popular Culture 310 John Hartley 23 Audience Reception and News in Everyday Life 325 Mirca Madianou
  • 7. CONTENTS vii V. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT 24 Journalism and Globalization 341 Simon Cottle 25 Development Journalism 357 Xu Xiaoge 26 Advocacy Journalism in a Global Context 371 Silvio Waisbord 27 Covering War and Peace 386 Howard Tumber 28 Researching Public Service Broadcasting 398 Hallvard Moe and Trine Syvertsen 29 Comparative Journalism Studies 413 Thomas Hanitzsch 30 Towards De-Westernizing Journalism Studies 428 Herman Wasserman and Arnold S. de Beer Author Index 439 Subject Index 443
  • 8. ix Series Editor’s Foreword Robert T. Craig Although the origins of academic research on journalism can be traced to mid-nineteenth century Europe and work on this topic developed in several disciplines through the twentieth century, especially in U.S. schools of Journalism and Mass Communication during the century’s last sev- eral decades, in the perspective of the present moment journalism seems to have emerged rather suddenly on the international scene of communication research as a vibrant new interdisciplinary field. The Journalism Studies interest group of the International Communication Association, formed as recently as 2004 with 50 initial members, at this writing is one of the largest, fastest growing. and most broadly international ICA divisions with over 500 members as of mid-2008. The Handbook of Journalism Studies, edited by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch, is thus a timely contribution that provides a benchmark assessment and sets the agenda for future research in this burgeoning area. The editors’ introduction notes other signs of growth including several new journals and major books on Journalism Studies published in recent years. It must be acknowledged that much of what is here called Journalism Studies continues lines of research that have gone on for many years under the rubric of Mass Communication, but the shift to Journalism Studies represents more than just a new label for old work or the familiar process of a maturing sub-specialty spin- ning off from an overpopulated division. Rather, it marks a significant shift of focus away from the functionalist tradition in which journalism has been studied primarily with regard to abstract functions of the mass communication process like gatekeeping and agenda setting. While these and other similar lines of empirical research, as represented by excellent chapters in this volume, continue to flourish and hold an important place, the frame shift from Mass Communication to Journalism Studies inverts figure and ground. As the central focus shifts away from abstract functions of mass communication and toward journalism as, in the editors’ words, “one of the most important social, cultural and political institutions,” then the normative, historical, cultural, sociological, and political aspects of journalism that were formerly overshadowed emerge as pri- mary concerns and redefine the intellectual context in which empirical studies are conducted. The editors and authors contributing to this volume hail from 11 countries around the world and include leading scholars representing a range of disciplines. Thirty chapters review bodies of literature on diverse aspects of Journalism Studies as an academic field, practices of news production, analyses of news content, the complex relations of journalism to society, and the global context of journalism research. Internationalizing the field and developing a global per- spective on journalism institutions, extending research in traditionally marginalized institutions and practices, and connecting scholarship with journalism education and professional practice are appropriately emphasized by the editors as goals for the future.
  • 9. THE ICA HANDBOOK SERIES The ICA Handbook series is a joint venture between the International Communication Associa- tion and Routledge. It will be a series of scholarly handbooks that represent the interests of ICA members and help to further the Association’s goals of promoting theory and research across the discipline. These handbooks will provide benchmark assessments of current scholarship and set the agenda for future work. The series will include handbooks that focus on content areas, meth- odological approaches, and theoretical lenses for communication research. We seek proposals from prospective editors of handbooks. We especially seek proposals that cross the boundaries of established disciplines and fields to address timely problems of interna- tional scope, not just representing different specialties but bringing them together collaboratively to address intersecting interests and research problems of broad interest. For example, such prob- lems might be formulated as topical concerns (e.g., globalization, virtual environments), theoreti- cal approaches (e.g., social cognition, critical studies), or matters pertaining to communication or communication research in general (e.g., methodological innovations, communication theory across cultures). For more information about this series, contact: Robert T. Craig ICA Handbook Series Editor Department of Communication University of Colorado at Boulder 270 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0270 303-492-6498 voice 303-492-8411 fax or Linda Bathgate Senior Editor, Communication Studies Routledge 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 212-216-7854 phone 212-643-1430 fax
  • 10. xi Preface The book that you now have before you is a product of the conviction that we should care about journalism and its study. We should care about journalism because it’s central to democracy, citizenship, and everyday life, and we should care about journalism studies because it helps us understand this key social institution. We are not alone in holding this conviction: Journal- ism studies is one of the fastest growing areas within the larger discipline of communication research and media studies. As indicated by a serious, though not altogether coherent body of academic literature and ongoing scholarly work, the study of journalism has matured to become an academic field of its own right. We felt that the arrival of journalism studies ought to be both celebrated and solidified, and to honor this ambition, The Handbook of Journalism Studies was conceived as a gathering place for the varied lasting and emerging preoccupations of scholars in the field. This handbook therefore bears witness to the rapid and exciting developments within this important area of research, as well as its complexity, richness and promise in terms of theory and research. We hope the book can boost the intellectual foundations of journalism studies, providing the reader with an overview of journalism as a dynamic field of study across its diverse epistemological, theoretical and methodological traditions. The Handbook of Journalism Studies sets out to comprehensively chart the field and define the agenda for future research in an international context. It is our hope that the handbook, when taken as a whole, provides a sense of journalism research on a global scale, covering not just the dominant Anglo-American traditions but also looking beyond this context, to Africa, Latin America, continental Europe, and Asia. Although we have sought to make journalism studies a broad church in including 30 different chapters, each covering an impressive breadth of subject matter, we do not claim to survey every key area and tradition of scholarship in journalism stud- ies. We had to make tough choices about what we were able to include and, regrettably, what to leave out. Needless to say, it would be impossible to do complete justice to a rich, dynamic and ever-emerging field of research in only one volume, however bulky, and we are reassured that journalism studies continues to be a productive scholarly community where the debates that echo in this book and those we have been unable to reflect continue with unabated fervor. What we do hope is that The Handbook of Journalism Studies will be a useful compendium resource for anyone trying to get a sense of an academic field of inquiry and its past, present and future. We intend for the book to provide the starting point for further discussion and debate among scholars and students in communication and journalism studies. The book is structured around a critical engagement with key theoretical and empirical tra- ditions, fields of inquiry and scholarly debates in journalism studies, laid out by the foremost experts in each area. Beginning with four introductory chapters which outline more general is- sues in the field, the organization of the book reflects the aim of covering the broad contours of journalism studies. The volume contains four thematic sections, covering scholarship on news production and organizations, news content, journalism and society, and journalism in a global context. Within these sections, each chapter provides a systematic and accessible overview of the
  • 11. xii PREFACE state of scholarship and defines key problems, but also advances theory-building and problem- solving, and identifies areas for further research. Editing this book and working with some of the most renowned scholars of our field has been a pleasure and a privilege, but it would not have been possible without the help and dedica- tion of many committed people. We would therefore like to express our gratitude to all contribu- tors for their excellent chapters. We would also like to thank Linda Bathgate from Routledge and the series editor Robert T. Craig for their helpful comments on the first draft of the proposal and their help during the editing process. We are especially indebted to Hong Nga Nguyen “Angie” Vu who did an exceptional job in proofreading all chapters. Karin would like to thank colleagues in the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies for their support and advice, and Jacob Wahl-Byde for his arrival in the middle of this project, adding both endless joy and chaos. Thomas would like to thank colleagues in the Institute for Mass Communication and Media Re- search at the University of Zurich for their patience and support during the editing stage of the book.
  • 12. xiii Contributors Chris Anderson is completing his doctoral studies in communication at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, New York. His research focuses on new media technologies, journalistic authority and the position of journalism within the sociology of the professions. He has contributed chapters to a number of books, including The Media and Social Theory (Rout- ledge, 2008), The International Encyclopedia of Communication (Blackwell, 2008) and Making Our Media (Hampton Press, 2008). Chris Atton is Reader in Journalism at the School of Creative Industries, Napier University, Edinburgh. His research into alternative media is interdisciplinary, drawing on sociology, jour- nalism, cultural studies, popular music studies and politics. His books include Alternative Jour- nalism (Sage, 2008, with James Hamilton), An Alternative Internet (Edinburgh University Press, 2004), Alternative Media (Sage, 2002) and Alternative Literature (Gower, 1996). He is currently researching the nature of distributed creativity in avant-garde and experimental music; the cul- tural politics of post-punk fanzines; and audiences for community media in Scotland. Kevin G. Barnhurst is Professor, Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Chi- cago. His studies of news consumption and critical analyses of journalism include The Form of News: A History (Guilford Press, 2001), with John Nerone, Seeing the Newspaper (St. Martin’s Press, 1994), and many other articles and book chapters. He has been LSU Reilly Visiting Fel- low; Distinguished Fulbright Chair, Italy; Shorenstein Fellow at Harvard; Visiting Scholar at Columbia University; and Senior Fulbright Scholar, Peru. Lee B. Becker is a professor and Director of the James M. Cox Jr. Center for International Mass Communication Training and Research at the University of Georgia, Athens. His research focus- es on a variety of topics, including news work, the interface between the journalism labor market and educational and training institutions, and the evaluation of media performance. His most re- cent book is The Evolution of Key Mass Communication Concepts (Hampton Press, 2005), edited with Sharon Dunwoody, Douglas M. McLeod, and Gerald M. Kosicki. Daniel A. Berkowitz is Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa. His main areas of research are in sociology of news, and media and terrorism. He is the editor of Social Meanings of News: A Text-Reader (Sage, 1997) and has published articles in Journalism, Journalism Studies, International Communication Gazette, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Communication, as well as chapters in Media and Politi- cal Violence (Hampton Press, 2007) and in Media Anthropology (Sage, 2005). S. Elizabeth Bird is Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida. Her books include For Enquiring Minds: A Cultural Study of Supermarket Tabloids
  • 13. xiv CONTRIBUTORS (University of Tennessee Press, 1992), Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture (Westview, 1996) and The Audience in Everyday Life: Living in a Media World (Routledge, 2003). She has published over 50 articles and chapters; she is currently editing a book on the anthropology of news and journalism. Renita Coleman is Assistant Professor at the University of Texas in Austin. Her research fo- cuses on visual communication and ethics. She is co-author of the book The Moral Media: How Journalists Reason About Ethics (Erlbaum, 2004, with Lee Wilkins), and has published articles in numerous journals including Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Com- munication, and Journalism Studies. She is associate editor of the Journal of Mass Media Ethics. She was a newspaper journalist for 15 years. Simon Cottle is Professor of Media and Communications and Deputy Head of the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University, Wales. His latest book is Glob- al Crisis Reporting: Journalism in the Global Age (Open University Press, 2009) and recent books include Mediatized Conflict: Developments in Media and Conflict Studies (Open Univer- sity Press, 2006) and The Racist Murder of Stephen Lawrence: Media Performance and Public Transformation (Praeger, 2004). He i
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