Fiber Optics - Conference

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  • 3. FIBER OPTICS It is a system in which it moves /travel the information. It is a quite thin wire or plastic glass and its thickness varies between 10 and 300 microns. To prevent light propagation losses caused by residues in the surface of the fiber, the core of the F.O. is coated with a crystalline film of small refraction rate.
  • 4. OPERATION The light injected into one end of the fiber, with an angle known as numerical aperture, is totally reflected. The light is reflected multiple times through the fiber until it comes out the other end.
  • 5. F.O. CRITICAL ELEMENTS CORE CLADDING It is where the beam will be guide. It will prevent the presence or impurities.
  • 6. NUMERICAL APERTURE If a lens between the light source and the tube for focusing light in a narrower beam is installed. more energy is then coupled into the tube and more energy reaches the end of the tube. The term that describes the ability to collect light from a light guide is the numerical aperture (NA) which is applied to optical fibers.
  • 8. F.O.CLASIFICATION APLICATION Tx Mode COMPOSITION  High quality fibers for telecommunications links  Fibers for short and medium distance links.  Monomode fiber  Multimode fiber  Core and plastic cover  Glass core with plastic cover (PCS)  Core and cover glass (SCS)
  • 9. APLICATION HIGH QUALITY F.O. They are composed of silicon, while the other, only the core is composed of glass. Its main application is for telecommunications links. F.O. for short and medium distance links Gradual Index IndexJump They are ideal for transmitting television signals and multiservice networks. Core fibers comprise silicon dioxide coatings and plastics. Plastic- coated fibers resist radiation and are ideal for use in the military area.
  • 10. Tx Mode Monomode Fiber Multimode Fiber The light beam follows a unique path. The light beam can follow several paths.
  • 11. MONOMODE Vs. MULTIMODE  Greater flow of information is reached. It has a bandwidth on the order of 100 GHz / km.  Existen muchas maneras de propagar la luz. El núcleo es de gran dimensión, esto la hace mas económica, fácil de diseñar y su instalación y conexión es mas sencilla. MONOMODE MULTIMODE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES o Because of its small size is a greater complexity process when installing. o It applies to short distances less than 10 [km].
  • 12. COMPOSITION Core and plastic cover Glass core with plastic cover (PCS) Core and cover glass (SCS)
  • 13. The PLASTIC F.O. are more flexible, stronger, more resistant to pressure, are less heavy, easier to install and it cost is lower. GLASSVs. PLASTIC The disadvantages of plastic F.O. is that they have greater attenuation, propagation of light is less efficient and are only used in small networks as buildings.
  • 14. P.C.S. Vs. S.C.S The SCS F.O. have less strength and are weaker to mitigating growth when exposed to radiation.They are applicable for civilian use. The PCS F.O. are less affected by radiation and therefore are better for military use.
  • 15. F.O.CARACTERISTICS GENERAL TECHNICAL MECHANICAL  More resistant coverage.The coating includes 25% more material than a conventional cable coatings.  In the inside of a gel coating is placed, making the water does not stay within the cable, thus having a longer life.  Anti-flammable protection.  High density packaging. It is to introduce a greater number of fibers within a cable that has the smallest possible diameter. All this in order to get a quick and easy installation, plus the cable can withstand great efforts and folds.  Transmits analog or digital information.This consists of the nucleus, which is where the light propagates, and the coating is necessary for the propagation medium occurring element.  The amount of transfer of information within an optical fiber, these given by: 1) Exact design of the fiber. 2) Properties that include the materials used in their manufacture. 3)Width of the light spectrum (the wider spectrum, the less information transfer).  The operating range of the F.O. It is - 55 ° C to 125 ° C .  The F.O. has a poor response to torsion, compression thrust and besides having a significant degradation in hostile environments.  To help improve these responses are designed optoelectronic couplers.  It is essential that coatings and protections that protect good quality fiber are available.To achieve this should be considered its weakness and micro curvatures curvatures.
  • 16. TYPES OF F.O. CABLES FOR SPECIAL APPLICATIONS They are classified accordingly to their construction and uses Loose StructureCable Tight Cable Structure ArmoredCable
  • 17. Loose Structure Cable Its main feature is the fiber tubes housing the cable inside it. Inside they are placed several fibers of a loosely. They are filled with a gel type prevents water into contact with the fiber. The loose tube whose function alienate fiber mechanical forces exerted on the outside of the cable. The concentric cable section includes a reinforcing material such as steel, or kevlar.With this is given greater strength and support cable when making the laying
  • 18. TIGHT CABLE S STRUCTURE It includes various fibers with a secondary protection which in turn surround a central section of reinforcement and all this is surrounded by an outer protective layer The secondary protection is applied to each fiber individually in order to give a better hardware besides allowing it to be connected directly without the need for splicing. This represents minimize cost of installation and splicing rule when laying the cable
  • 19. ARMORED CABLE It has a steel layer before the protective cover. It gives better protection to be crushed and protects it against rodents.. This type of cable is mainly used in heavy industry and generally tended lines are underground.
  • 21. ADVANTAGES I You can create direct connections from 100 to 200 km without the need for repeaters, and benefiting the economic aspect. Low Atenuation Great ∆B  High Performance can now be transmitted parallel optical waves of different wave- lengths.  Equipment can operate in ranges between 100 [MHz / km] to 10 [GHz / km]. Size and Weight  The diameter of a cable composed of 64 fibers is between 15 and 20 mm and its weight is approx. 250 kg / km.  A conventional cable 900 pairs 0.4 caliber, has a diameter between 40 and 50 mm and a weight of 4 000 kg / km.
  • 22. ADVANTAGES II Silicon dioxide or silicon, gives a high degree of flexibility. Flexibility Electric Aisolation  The dielectric properties of silicon are utilized.  They are ideal for installation in environments where there are electrical disturbances. Radiation  The F.O. is a means by which light is transmitted but does not produce electromagnetic radiation.  The radiation emitted by other means does not affect the optical fiber  This makes it a safe means of transmission and high quality.
  • 23. D I S A D V A N T A G E S Bit Rate  It can only be used in communication systems with a very high bit rates.  It is very difficult to have proper control of the phase of an optical signal. Empalmes y Reparacion  The joints are very complex to perform and if the cable breaks will be very difficult to repair.  Joints cause significant losses if not done correctly. Equipamiento  When installing a F.O. communication system, it should be considered the need for expensive additional equipment such as light sources, transmitters, detectors, multiplexers, receptors, etc. ∆B  For low ∆B, the copper conductor is less expensive. Energia Electrica  The FO. does not transfer electric energy, for that reason can not be used to energize the receiving terminal.
  • 25. NETWORKING & COMMS The FO. can transmit more information at higher frequencies. Transoceanic and transcontinental links: Allows long distance communications link without the need for a repeater that regenerates the signal. (> 100 [km]). It is applied in LAN (Local Area Network).The equipment is separated by short distances, which is why they are ideal for use in offices or universities. WAN (Wide Área Network): Connect equipment to each other that are separated by longer distances than LANs.
  • 26. INTERNET It allows greater speed and connection stability.
  • 27. TELEPHONY Communications companies take advantage of the versatility of the F.O. to connect all its headquarters and long distance switches Main feature are the Great ∆B and low losses. This makes the connection costsTelephone Cias. on F.O.Vs. be cheaper costs with copper wire.
  • 28. CATV Companies use F.O. in their backbone networks (backbones)They give greater reliability and gives them the opportunity to offer additional services, such as telephony, internet connection, etc. The problem occurred with the use of coaxial cable was thatTV companies used analog signals of very high frequency (up to 1 [GHz]), causing a high attenuation on the coaxial cable. To counteract this effect many amplifiers (repeaters) that allowed to reach the end user are implemented. Often these amplifiers fail which means that traffic (downstream) to the subscriber lost all signal. Find and repair these amplifiers was complex and time consuming.
  • 29. M I L I T A R Y Alta Resistencia Mecánica Nuclear Radiation Security Interferience Weight Radar Comms. Missiles Networking As its core made of silicon. By not having to encode the messages transmitted by F.O. as would be the case of R.F. The F.O. is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The implementation of the F.O. in the construction of aircraft (eg. A-7 of the U.S. Navy) significantly reduced the length of cables used and the total weight of the aircraft. It applies the F.O. for radars are far away from the operations center. It is used to control systems of cruise missiles launched from a ground station and thanks to the F.O.They can be controlled by different terrestrial camps (F.O. networks) F.O. help ot interconnect the various terrestrial camps
  • 30. ELECTRIC INDUSTRY INTERFERENCE  Immune to electrical interference and EMF.  They are widely used in high voltage apliations. RUGGED  They must withstand the weather and underground conditions. TEMPERATURE  The F.O. for these applications can withstand temperatures up to 220 ° C and currents 25 [KA]
  • 31. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES It is used for the manufacture of parts Inspection by foundry. F I B E R O S C O P E Used to analyze whether the part has deformations which are caused by air bubbles which are captured in the process. To build a fiberscope is essentially requires a light guide consists of an enclosed beam 10 fiber cable with a diameter no greater than 1 mm. If desired esquinados corners inspect a synthetic single fiber was used.
  • 32. MEDICINE New optoelectronic techniques are used, these consist of adapting needles, tweezers for sampling, cautery electrodes, tubes dosage of anesthetic, introduction or removal of fluids. Modern FIBERSCOPES are used for: 1) Diagnosis:You can detect cancer and ulcers in its initial state, something that is not possible through X-ray 2)Therapeutic: Allows exercise in biliary tract surgery for removal of stones, foreign bodies, inject drugs, larger organs for better surgery. 3) Postoperative: By fiberscope can be observed directly and immediately the areas that were affected during surgery way.
  • 33. S E N S O R S Optical temperature and pressure sensors are widely used in oil wells, as they resist higher temperatures and pressures and they do not propagate electric or electromagnetic energy. ADVANTAGES They are smaller and have no electrical currents. In the oil industry and marine companies currently hydrophones are used to detect seismic activities.
  • 34. CARS The F.O. It is used to monitor internal parts in an engine, injectors or braking systems for the marking and lighting of the icons on the boards of the car.
  • 35. LIGHTING On the boards of the stadiums. Letters or numbers slates dot matrix form, each of these points is a tiny beam produced by a fiber. Places at risk of fire can be illuminated, such as the oil industry facilities, industries that handle flammable substances in the mining industry.
  • 36. Marine The company International America's Cup Class yachts built with reinforced plastic carbon fiber and aluminum which provides them with high levels of rigidity and strength while minimizing weight. The mast suffers stress and bending moment and torsional To monitor this, the company placed a system based on optical fibers. Noting that at no point endangers the physical or mechanical integrity of the boat.
  • 38. F.O. HACKING One of the commonly used couplers is the FOD 5503 consisting of a non- invasive way of coupling cables F.O. SPY COMMUNICATIONS Consist in attaching to any point of the F.O. a device known as Optical Coupler Clip-on. Without accessing either end and with the application ofWireshark software used to analyze professional networks.
  • 39. ESPIONAGE ON F.O. The British Espionage Program known as TEMPORA can legally access the information that runs through British territory. .. The sequence of steps is as follows 1. In the first place the electronic data are transformed with ultrashort pulse laser light in. 2. These pulses represent the digits zero and one which is encoded digital informaicón. 3. At the end of the FO is a photodiode that rebuilds electrical impulses from the light pulses.
  • 40. WEAK POINT ABOUT THE F.O. • For the transmission of data traversing the F.O. should "regenerate" each a certain amount of Km. • These regenerators are the weak point of the cables, since there can be "click" with ease. Since the fibers do not come together but each must be separately reinforced.
  • 41. SUBMARINE CABLES CLICKING Keep in mind that you have many data and must first be decoded, so the data must be stored temporarily. The secret services now come from very selective way to avoid getting lost in the "labyrinth of data" It is speculated that at the present the American submarine "Jimmy Carter" is dedicated to click certain F.O. of interest.
  • 42. EVALUATION AND COUNTERMEASURE Clicking a F.O. is not an easy task but a well-trained technician can do it. To detect the attempt of clicking, very sensitive measurement instruments and constant monitoring are needed. As it could detect the signal decreases suddenly. Once punctured the F.O.The other challenge is to evaluate the huge amount of data. To get an idea into a FO with a yield of 50% provides data about 10 [TB /h].
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