Ear and its parts

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1. THE EAR AND ITS PARTS Marwa Firas 2013 2.  auditory phonetics  Speaker-Listener Interrelation  Brain, Speech and Hearing  Speech Reception  Peripheral…
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  • 1. THE EAR AND ITS PARTS Marwa Firas 2013
  • 2.  auditory phonetics  Speaker-Listener Interrelation  Brain, Speech and Hearing  Speech Reception  Peripheral Auditory System / The Hearing Organs  The Process of Hearing
  • 3. AUDITORY PHONETICS  Carr (2008:17) defines auditory phonetics as the branch of phonetics which deals with the way that the human ear and perceptual system receive and process speech sounds.  Crystal (2003:42) defines auditory phonetics as the branch of phonetics which studies the perceptual response to speech sounds, as mediated by ear, auditory nerve and brain
  • 4. PERCEPTION  Trask (1996:260) clarifies the notion of Perception as “ the process by which an individual detects and interprets information from the external world by means of the organs of sense, the nervous system and the brain.
  • 5. SPEAKER-LISTENER INTERRELATION
  • 6.  Listeners need to be able to understand the meaning with the least possible effort on their part.  sounds that affect the meaning of a word should be sufficiently distinct from one another.  pressure to make changes that would result in easier articulations from a speaker’s point of view.  there should be sufficient perceptual contrast between sounds that affect the meaning of an utterance from the listener’s point of view .
  • 7. BRAIN, SPEECH AND HEARING  The process of speech and hearing is translated to the brain by means of codes via the hearing system that help gather up the sounds, transmitting them as neural impulses to be interpreted in the brain.
  • 8. SPEECH RECEPTION  it is done via the ear (outer, middle, inner) as the air pressure pushes its parts.  it interprets neural impulses as hearing sensation.
  • 9. PERIPHERAL AUDITORY SYSTEM / THE HEARING ORGANS THE OUTER EAR  Auricle or the Pinna (the visible part of the ear).  Ear Canal.
  • 10. THE MIDDLE EAR A. Eardrum. B. Middle ear cavity. C. Auditory Ossicles /ɒsIkəl/ (Mallet, Anvil, Stirrup). A. Eustachian Tube.
  • 11. THE INNER EAR  Semicircular ducts.  Cochlea.
  • 12. COCHLEA A snail-like shape which is divided into regions along its length by the cochlear partition 1. Scala Media 2. Scala Tympani and Scala Vestibuli which are separated by the Basilar and Reissner’s Membrane from scala media by respectively 3. Helicotrema 4. Oval Window 5. Round Window 6. Organ of Corti
  • 13. THE PROCESS OF HEARING  Pinna  auditory canal  tympanic membrane  hammer anvil  stirrup  oval window  Perilymph  organ of Corti  auditory canal brain (Macmillan, 2013)
  • 14. REFERENCES  --------. (2013). Macmillian  Ainsworth, A. And Steven Greenberg. (2004). “Speech Processing in the Auditory System: An Overview” in Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Ed. Richard R. Fay and Arthur N. Popper. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc  Carr, Philip. (2013). English Phonetics and Phonology. Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  Crytal, D. (2003). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.  Johnson, Keith. (2003). Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics. London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  Ladefoged, Peter. (2011). A Course in Phonetics. Canada: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.  Trask, R. L. (2005). Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. London: Taylor & Francis Routledge.
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