A&P Test 2 Study Guide - 10/29/09

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A&P Test 2 Study Guide - 10/29/09 1. Histology Histology is the study of tissues. Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure, that perform a common function. There are four tissue types: 1. Muscle 2. Epithelial 3. Nervous 4. Connective Cells are held together by: 1. Extra-cellular fibers 2. Sticky substances on cell coats. 2. Epithelial Functions Epithelial cells have four primary functions. 1. Protection (skin) 2. Absorption (intestinal wall) 3. Secretion (kidney tubule) 4. Filtration
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  A&P Test 2 Study Guide - 10/29/09 1. Histology Histology is the study of tissues. Tissues are groups of cellswith a common structure, that perform a common function. There are four tissue types:1. Muscle2. Epithelial3. Nervous4. ConnectiveCells are held together by:1. Extra-cellular fibers2. Sticky substances on cell coats. 2. Epithelial Functions Epithelial cells have four primary functions.1. Protection (skin)2. Absorption (intestinal wall)3. Secretion (kidney tubule)4. Filtration (kidney glomerulus)  3. Muscle cell types and properties.  There are three types of muscle tissue.1. Skeletala. located near/attached to the bones, shaped like longcylinders.b. they are striated, moved voluntarily, andmulti-nucleated.2. Cardiaca. located in the heart, shaped like long, branchedcylinders.b. they are striated, moved voluntarily, and have only 1nucleus.3. Smootha. located in and around organs, shaped like spindles.b. they are not striated, move involuntarily, and haveonly 1 nucleus. 4. Bone Matrix Anatomy Bone (osseus tissue) structure is a matrix of many collagenfibers with organic salts such as Ca3(PO4)2 [calciumphosphate]. Osteoblasts produce the organic portion of thematrix; then bone salts are deposited on and between them.Mature bone cells (osteocytes) hang out in there too. Refer topage 62 in the labmanual for a cross sectional picture of bone.  5. Types of Glands A gland is one more cells that secrete a product.Secretion is an active process - cells require material from theblood to make the product. There are 2 types of glands:1. Endocrine - ductless glands that secrete hormones intoblood or lymph.(examples include thyroid gland, pituitary, and adrenalglands). *Endocrine glands may or may not be made of epithelial cells. 2. Exocrine - these glands secrete whatever they make viaducts into the body cavity or onto the body.a. Merocrine glands: use exocryons, no change in cellsexamples: pancreas, sweat & salivary glands,mammaries.b. Holocrine glands: rupture when product accumulates- cells die.  examples: sebaceous oil glandsc. Apocrine glands: the ends of the cell pinch off, as aresult, cytoplasm is lost .(debatable) examples: lips, products of mammaryglands. 6. Matching **refer to lab manual pg. 53-57 Pseudostratified: epithelial tissue is a single layer but looks likemore than one. Each cell touches the basement membrane andeminates outward. They overlap each other but there is only onetrue layer. Found in respiratory tract.Simple Squamous: Thin layer of epithelial tissue found in bloodvessels and air sacs of the lungs. Single, squashed layer.Simple Cuboidal: Cube shaped epithelial tissue, single layer -found in areas that need to secrete and absorb products. Foundin kidney tubules.Stratified Cuboidal: Generally only 2 cell layers thick, found inglands, used for protection.
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